Related entry: Vanilla (U. S. P.)—Vanilla
Preparation.—Take of choice vanilla, 1 troy ounce sugar, 14 troy ounces; deodorized alcohol, 4 fluid ounces; diluted alcohol, water, each, a sufficient quantity. Cut the vanilla in short transverse slices, beat it to a pulp with 2 ounces of sugar and a little alcohol put the mixture in a small percolator, and pour gradually on, first, the alcohol, and afterward diluted alcohol, till 12 ounces of tincture are obtained. Add 2 ounces of sugar to this tincture, evaporate it at 48.8° C. (120° F.), till reduced to 6 fluid ounces; then add the remainder of the sugar and 5 ounces of water, or as much as is sufficient to make a pint of fluid extract.
Medical Uses and Dosage.—(See Vanilla). This extract embodies all the aroma of the beans, and is well adapted for both pharmaceutical and culinary uses. Two fluid ounces added to 2 pints of simple syrup, form an excellent syrup of vanilla, or if a perfectly transparent syrup be desired, 2 ounces of the fluid extract may be triturated with 2 drachms of carbonate of magnesium, to which 1/2 pint of water may be added gradually; then filter, mix the liquid with another 1/2 pint of water, and add 2 1/2 pounds (troy) of sugar, dissolve with gentle heat, and strain (Wm. Procter, Jr.). In our experience, great care must be exercised in the selection of vanilla. The short beans (vanillons) are not fitted for use other than as tobacco flavors, and seem not to be much, if any, superior to tonka beans for that purpose.
Ɣ Flavoring Extracts and Essences.—Under the names Flavoring Extracts and Essences, mixtures of ethers, solutions of oils, and in some cases tinctures of fruits, are employed in culinary operations and in syrups. These are important as soda water flavors, and chiefly for this purpose do we introduce a few standard extracts of this description, taking the formulae from "Elixirs and Flavoring Extracts," by J. U. Lloyd.
FLAVORING EXTRACT OF CHOCOLATE.—Powdered chocolate, 4 ounces; syrup, water, of each, a sufficient amount. Rub the chocolate in a mortar, with syrup gradually added, until reduced to a cream, then add syrup enough to bring to the measure of 8 fluid ounces, after which add 1 pint of water. Pour the mixture into a pan and bring it to a brisk boil and then allow to cool. This extract is of uncertain quality, owing to the variation in commercial chocolates. It is never transparent, and is likely to deposit considerable sediment. It will ferment in hot weather, and must either be made in small amounts or put into small bottles that are well filled and kept in a cool place. Some persons flavor extract of chocolate with vanilla, but in our experience it is not always acceptable.
FLAVORING EXTRACT OF COFFEE.—Freshly roasted Java coffee, 8 ounces; alcohol and water mixed in the proportion of alcohol 12, water 4, a sufficient amount. Powder the coffee coarsely, moisten with the mixed alcohol and water, and pack in a previously prepared, suitable percolator. Cover the powder with the menstruum (about 20 ounces), and when the percolate appears, close the exit and allow the coffee to macerate 24 hours; then continue the percolation until 1 pint is obtained. The remarks we have made concerning the quality of chocolate will apply also to coffee. The process we commend produces an extract that represents the coffee very accurately, and in our opinion the addition of syrup and glycerin is undesirable.
FLAVORING EXTRACT OF GINGER.—Jamaica ginger, freshly powdered, 2 ounces; alcohol a sufficient amount. Pack the powder in a percolator prepared for percolation. Cover with alcohol (using about 20 fluid ounces), and when the percolate appears, close the exit of the percolator, and macerate for a period of 24 hours. Then percolate slowly until 1 pint of the percolate is obtained. The strength maybe increased or diminished to suit the taste of the operator, the quality desired governing in this direction. The diluted alcohol may also be replaced with alcohol.
FLAVORING EXTRACT OF GINGER (Soluble).—Fluid extract of ginger (U. S. P.), 4 fluid ounces; magnesium carbonate, water, alcohol, of each, a sufficient amount. Evaporate the fluid extract to 1 fluid ounce; add enough magnesium carbonate to form a creamy mixture, then water to bring to the measure of 8 fluid ounces, rubbing well together, and filter. To the filtrate add enough alcohol to make a total of 16 fluid ounces. Color, if desirable, with caramel. Some persons wish a hot, peppery taste; this is made by using a few drops of tincture of capsicum. The operator can determine the necessity for this addition, and modify the extract to suit the whim of his patrons.
FLAVORING EXTRACT OF LEMON (Good, from the oil).—Oil of lemon, 1 fluid ounce; alcohol, 15 fluid ounces. Mix them together, and after a few days, filter if a precipitate forms. Then color to suit the taste with a little tincture of curcuma.
FLAVORING EXTRACT OF LEMON.—Grate off the outer rind of 4 lemons. Put this into a wide-mouth bottle and pour upon it a pint of alcohol, and add thereto 1/2 fluid ounce of fresh oil of lemon. Macerate, with occasional shaking, for 4 days, and filter. Color the filtrate to suit the taste with a sufficient amount of tincture of curcuma.
FLAVORING EXTRACT OF NECTAR.—This is one of the fanciful titles that have been given to a soda water syrup that is quite popular. The following formula produces a mixture that gives general satisfaction: Flavoring extracts, of vanilla, 3 fluid ounces; of lemon, 6 fluid ounces; of orange, 4 fluid ounces; of strawberry, 3 fluid ounces. Mix these together, and if necessary, filter through a little carbonate of magnesium.
FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ORANGE (Good).—Add 1 fluid ounce of sweet oil of orange to 15 fluid ounces of alcohol, and color the mixture to suit the taste with tincture of curcuma modified with a little cochineal color. The manipulator should bear in mind, in the making of flavoring extract of orange, that the demand is for an extract of a dark-yellow color, whereas, in making an extract of lemon the demand is for an extract of a much lighter color. The various shades can easily be made with different proportions of curcuma tincture and cochineal.
FLAVORING EXTRACT OF PINEAPPLE.—Extract of pineapple is a favorite with some persons, although most people select one of the preceding flavors. It may be said that the majority prefer lemon, vanilla, and orange, but next, perhaps, to these comes pineapple. Extract of pineapple is not made from the fruit, neither is it made from the oil nor a product of the fruit. It is an association of ether flavors which reminds one of the odor of pineapples. The base of pineapple extract is butyric ether, to which are added other substances to modify its harshness.
FLAVORING EXTRACT OF PINEAPPLE (Strong).—Butyric ether, 2 fluid ounces; diluted alcohol, 14 fluid ounces. Mix them together and flavor to suit the taste with a little tincture of curcuma, and modify with enough cochineal color to overcome the bright yellow of the curcuma.
FLAVORING EXTRACT OF RASPBERRY.—That which we have written concerning artificial flavoring extract of strawberry (see below) may be applied to the flavoring extract of raspberry. While some formulae that we have seen are complex and demand the use of rare ethers, we have not observed that the products more nearly resemble the flavor of fresh raspberries than an extract made of cheaper ingredients. We have not as yet found any mixture that will more than remind us of the rich fragrance of the ripe, red raspberry. Indeed, in the raspberry season the artificial imitations of this fruit are far from being satisfactory, although they may be used when the fruit is out of season. The formula for the extract of strawberry is usually adopted, we believe, as that of extract of raspberry, the difference being that the color is intensified in the raspberry. However, we have found the following process to give satisfaction in a commercial way, and we therefore introduce it as a formula for flavoring extract of raspberry: Fluid extract of orris root, 2 fluid ounces; acetic ether, 1/2 fluid ounce; oil of cognac, 10 drops; butyric ether, 5 drops; diluted alcohol, 16 fluid ounces. Mix the ingredients, color to a dark red with tincture of cochineal, and after a few days filter, if necessary.
FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ROSE.—Oil of rose, 20 drops; alcohol, 4 fluid ounces; water, 12 fluid ounces; diluted alcohol, 16 fluid ounces. Dissolve the oil of rose in the diluted alcohol, and color with cochineal color to suit the taste.
FLAVORING EXTRACT OF SARSAPARILLA.—Oil of wintergreen, 1/2 ounce; oil of sassafras, 1/2 ounce; alcohol, 5 fluid ounces; water, 10 fluid ounces; caramel, a sufficient quantity. Triturate the mixed oils with magnesium carbonate, enough to form a thick cream, then with the mixed alcohol and water, and filter. To the filtrate add enough caramel to color it dark brown. This extract is designed to represent the drug neither in flavor nor in quality, but, upon the contrary, is made up of flavors that have been adopted and affixed to the syrup or beverage sold under the name sarsaparilla, and is foreign altogether to the drug. It is used as a flavor for mineral water beverages and soda syrups, and is a mixture of wintergreen and sassafras, and its connection with sarsaparilla drug is imaginary.
FLAVORING EXTRACT OF STRAWBERRY.—Fluid extract of orris root, 1/2 fluid ounce; acetic ether, 1 fluid drachm; oil of cognac, 5 drops; alcohol, 4 fluid ounces; diluted alcohol, 4 fluid ounces; water, 20 fluid ounces; cochineal color, a sufficient quantity. Mix the ingredients well together. Color to a bright strawberry-red with the cochineal color, and, after a few days, filter if necessary. Extracts of strawberry, as is well known, are made from mixtures of ethers, and, while the flavor is pleasant, and often reminds one of strawberry fruit, still we can not say that the artificial flavors with which we are acquainted compare with the odor of the fresh fruit. They will answer for making syrups when the fruit is out of season, or when a true juice of the fruit can not be obtained, but we must say that we do not commend these artificial extracts as being representatives of the fruit itself. The formulae that we present are such as will produce good trade extracts.
FLAVORING EXTRACT OF WINTERGREEN.—Oil of wintergreen, 1 fluid ounce; alcohol, 15 fluid ounces. Mix them together. This extract may be made of fresh berries, but not of the flavor strength produced by the foregoing formula. There is, perhaps, a freshness in the extract that is made of the berries that is wanting in the solution of the oil; but few persons, however, can procure fresh wintergreen berries. In selecting oil of wintergreen, it is to be borne in mind that the commercial oil is likely to be either oil of white birch or synthetical oil.
King's American Dispensatory, 1898, was written by Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D., and John Uri Lloyd, Phr. M., Ph. D.