This is a page to be proofread from Salmon's Botanologia, 1710.
and has lain forgotten tor above eight hundred \ ears, till this our Author difcovered it anew.
IV. The name of this Plant, Britannica, came not, says Munting, from the Ifland of that Name, but its Etymology ( says he ) is taken from the t'rifian language, Brit fignifying Confoltdare, vel fir mare, Tan, Dens, and lea, loofe, or a thing going sorth, which is as much as to say, to faflen looje Teeth, the loofness of the Teeth and Gums being one of the Grand Symptoms of the Scurvy. But by that great Man's, favour, we can give little credit to that tar fetch'd Etymology, it being always a thing known, that the pride of the Ancient Romans was too great to invent, or inveftigate any thing whatsoever with a Latin Name, whole Etymology ihould arise from the unpolifhcd Particles or Words of Barbarous Rations : Without doubt the Romans first finding it in England or Britannia in great plenty ( tho1 afterwards they might find it in Erie (land, and other places of the Low Countries ) gave it trie Denomiy nation from the Name of the Countrey they first found it in, and fb called it Britannica, quafi Herba Britannica, and this is that which I adhere to, and really believe.
V. All the Botanists of the last fix or feven hundred Years, knew nothing at all of it: indeed they have named Britannica, but they never durtt venture to fix it, so as to defcribe it, or figure it in Sculpture. And according to the several Ages, several kinds of Herbs or Plants, wrere taken to be this Plants of ours, as, Bistorta, Betonica, Beccabunga aquatica, Bug/a, Cochlearia, Heptaphyllon, Plantago aquatic a, Primula verts, Torment ilia, Veronica, and several others; all which were fallly, in their several Ages, said to be the Britannica of the Ancients: and the two famous Bauhins, who fpent their whole lives in the Botanick Study, made so great a mi-ftake, as to take Colubrina, or a sort of Snake-weed for it: And Cambden makes our Engiifh Hcrborifts to lay, that Scurvy-Grass was the true Britannica Plinij; than which nothing is more remote : without doubt this our Hydrolapathum nigrum, is the genuine or true Britannica of the Ancients, its description agreeing exactly in every particular with their Descriptions, and performing every thing, and more than they ascribed to it,
VI. The description. The first of these, which ή our European or Engiifh kind,has a Tuberous Root, large and roundifh, sending forth from it almost round about, several Arms or Branches of a confi-derable thickness, all which feem knobbed or gouty, and ill fhaped: Erom this Root rises up several Leaves pretty large, not much unlike to those of the largest Dock, but every way broader and longer, growing upright, and sharp pointed, sometimes of a blackish green, sometimes of a purplish green, and sometimes of ayellowish green color, sometimes spotted, and jometimes not. Erom the midst cj these Leaves rijes up, one pretty large Stalk, sometimes three or jour leet high, of the ft ape and color of an ordinary Dock, except that sometimes it is inclining to a reddish green-, it has a kind of joints, whence spring forth Leaves like the former, but much less and from the same places it fends forth manijold Branches, not much unlike to the Common Water Dock, bat more numerous, larger and higher. The flowers grow all over these Branches, almost from their very beginning, up even to their several ^Tbps, in a land qj Case or Husk, each set upon a small, (lender, Jhort tootstalk, and of a brown color ·, which being vamjhed, the Seed is contained in Chafiy husku not much unlike to other Dock Seed, elpecially that of the Water Dock. ' Jt '
VII. The American or Virginian Britanny has a Rom consisting of a Head thick and gouty, but not of
a round tuberous body like the former, from which Head grows downward into the Earth,jeueral Arms or Branches, which are thick, brownish without, and yellowish within : from this Root rises up one up-right Stalk of several feet high, which has also joints upon it like knees, from whence come forth very long and large Leaves, strong and hard, not much unlike to Mcnks Rhubarb, but that these are much longer. The Stalk ( which is very like that of other Docks ) nj'es up oftentimes to a conjiderable height, about the middle of which it J ends forth a great number of Branches not much un ike the European, which have some few Leaves, like the others upon them, but much less. The Flowers grow in vaft numbers upon all these Branches jingle, and each upon a small short Eootjtalk, even Jrom their beginning up to their very tops, set in fpaces at certain distances, in a feemmg Vnijorm manner : After the blowers arejpajl away, the Seed comes, which is contained in a Chaffy Husk like the first, and differs not much from it,neither in fhape, nor color, nor magnitude.
VIII. T))e Places. It commonly grows in Marfhy and Penny Grounds, banks of Ditches, and moilt Places, and in sides of Ditches, and watry Plafhes which are between the Land Ground and Fen Grounds in several parts of this Kingdom : I found some of it in the Borders of the Pens in Cambndge-Jhire and Huntingdonshire, and in other moilt and watry places. It glows plentifully also in tnejiand, Overyfjel, Gelderland, and Holland, and poilibly in many other places in the Low Countries.
IX. The Times. It shoots forth its Leaves in April; its Flowers in the latter end of May, or beginning of June and its Seed is ripe in August. The Root is to be gathered in the beginning or the Spring* or in Autum, viz. in March or September 5 the Leaves and Flowers in June and July and the Seed in the latter end of August, or beginning of the next Month.
X. The Qualities. It is temperate in refpect of heat or cold, but dry in the litter end of the second Degree. It is astringent, Aperitive, Digestive, and Traumatick ·, Siomatick, Hepatick, Hyiierick, Ar-thritick and Alterative.
XI. The Specification. It is peculiar for the curing the Scurvy, and all sorts of ί luxes of what kind, fbever and Munting says, it is a Specifick against Poifons and Convuliions.
XII. The Preparations. You may have therefrom, l. A liquid Juice. 2. An Essence. 3. A Decotiwn. 4. A Spirituous Tincture. 5. A Spirit by Eermentation. 6. A Balsam or Ointment. 7. The Eixed Salt. 8. The Pouder of the Root.
XIII. The liquid juice. Given to five or fix spoonfuls, or more, either by it lelf; or mixt with Red Port Wine, it strengthens and confirms the Stomach and Bowels, and powerfully refills the Scurvy in all its appearances, viz. with all its Symptoms, as Ulcers and Cankers in the Mouth, loolenels of the Teeth, wandering pains, weakness and iickness at Stomach, &e. It is good also against all manner of fluxes whatioever, as Diarrhea's, Dy-ienteries, Lienteries, Hepatick fluxes, overflowing ot the Terms in Women, It is to be taken Morning and Evening for some time.
XIV. The Essence. It has all the former Virtues, befides which, it is laid to cure Pleurilies, Quinfies, the Hemorrhoids, and all Ions ot Inflammations ·, and is very powerful and luwcelstul in the cure of Hydropical Distempers, more elpecially if it is impregnated with the fixed Salt of the same Plant, It is also an extraordinary Traumatick, tor the curing of Wounds and old Ulcers, being taken Morning,