"Indian Podophyllum Resin is a powdered resin prepared by the same process as that described under 'Podophylli Resina,' employing Indian Podophyllum Rhizome in place of Podophyllum Rhizome. It possesses the characters and responds to the tests described under 'Podophylli Resina.'" Br.
(See Podophylli Indici Rhizoma.)
The rhizome of the Indian Podophyllum has become a commercial article and appears to have been largely used in the making of podophyllin. The question as to the relative yield of the Indian and American plants is a matter of great importance to the manufacturer, it usually being- .stated that the Indian rhizome is twice as active. Some years since Dymock and Hooper obtained 12 per cent. of resin from P. Emodi; Umney, working with large quantities (P. J., Sept., 1902), got out 11.4 per cent.; since then John Barclay (P. J., 1903, lxx) was not able to obtain a greater yield than 6.69 per cent. Umney, commenting on this, believes that of late years the Indian plant gives a much smaller product than formerly, probably on account of the time of year in which it is now dug. In regard to the therapeutic interchangeability of the two resins it has been demonstrated by the researches of Dunstan and Henry and J. C. Umney that the active substances in true Podophyllin are all present in the Indian resin, but it is not assured that the proportion of these active principles is the same in the two resins. At one time it was claimed that the resin from the Indian species was more active than that obtained from the American plant, but this appears not to be correct. In the present state of our knowledge, the manufacturer is certainly not justified in putting upon the market a resin made from the Indian plant unless it is plainly marked as the Indian Podophyllin. Distinguishing between the two resins has become a question of importance. The presence of a yellowish-green color does not, as has been affirmed, prove that a podophyllin is impure or of Indian origin. The test of solubility is also uncertain. The Indian Podophyllin, properly prepared, is freely soluble in alcohol. It is commonly stated that the true Podophyllin will dissolve in ammonia (1 to 100). The Indian species is seemingly much less soluble in ammonia than this, but a properly prepared official resin does not always come up to this standard. E. J. Millard (P. J., Ix) states that the Indian resin strikes with strong sulphuric acid an orange to red color, the official resin yellow coloration, tending to brown, but especially commends the following test:
To six grains (0.4 Gm.) of the resin in a test tube add one fluidrachm (3.75 mils) of diluted alcohol sp. gr. 0.920, and eight or ten drops (0.4-0.5 mil) of solution potash, B. P.; shake gently by rotating the test tube. In case of the Indian resin, the mixture becomes in a few seconds a semi-solid gelatinous mass, so that the test tube can be safely inverted. If this does not occur quickly, the mixture should be heated until it just begins to boil, and when cold it will be found to have gelatinized. The official resin similarly treated gives a dark fluid that shows no signs of gelatinizing even after standing for days. The Indian Podophyllum Resin is used for the same purposes as the American. (See Resina Podophylli.)
Dose, one-fourth to one grain (0.016 to 0.065 mil); of the tincture (Tinctura Podophylli Indici), five to fifteen minims (0.3-0.9 mil).
Podophylli Indici Rhizoma. Br.
Indian Podophyllum Rhizome [Podophyllum Emodi Rhizome]
"Indian Podophyllum Rhizome is the dried rhizome and roots of Podophyllum Emodi, Wall."
Podophyllum Emodi (Fam. Berberidaceae) is a perennial herb which is indigenous to Thibet and Afghanistan. It somewhat resembles our American Podophyllum. The stem rises to a height of six or twelve inches before the leaves, which attain a diameter of six to ten inches when fully expanded. The latter are curiously reflexed, droop umbrella-like and are often spotted. The plant produces in May a large sub-sessile pinkish-white flower which arises from the axil of one of the leaves, maturing before the latter are fully expanded. The fruit is about the size of a small lemon, of a bright orange color, being fully ripe in about August or September.
The contorted rhizome of Podophyllum Emodi is from six to eight mm. in thickness, crowded above with numerous buds or short branches, marked by depressed oval or circular sears, and giving off numerous simple rootlets from the whole of the under surface. The terminal bud is enclosed in whitish papery sheaths. The color is earthy-brown. The fracture is white, short, and mealy, or yellow and horny, exhibiting a circular arrangement of yellow vascular bundles, and bounded on the outside by a thin brown cortical layer.
"Rhizome cylindrical or flattened, contorted, earthy-brown; usually about ten millimetres thick; below with numerous root-scars, or with stout roots, and crowned with the short remains of aerial stems, bearing cup-shaped scars. In transverse section, pale-brown and starchy or homy, with a ring of radially elongated wood-bundles. Slight odor; taste bitter and acrid." Br.
It is used for the same purposes as podophyllum.
Off. Prep.—Podophylli Indici Resina, Br.; Tinctura Podophylli Indici (from Resin), Br.
The Dispensatory of the United States of America, 1918, was edited by Joseph P. Remington, Horatio C. Wood and others.