Ol. Gossyp. Sem. [Cotton Seed Oil]
Related entry: Gossypium
"A fixed oil obtained from seeds of cultivated varieties of Gossypium herbaceum Linné, or of other species of Gossypium (Fam. Malvaceae). Preserve it in well-closed containers." U. S.
Oleum Gossypii; Cotton Oil; Huile de Semences de cotonnier, Fr.; Baumwollsamenöl, Baumöl, G.
This fixed oil has no other medicinal properties than those of a bland neutral oil, and has been introduced especially on account of its use in official liniments. The amount of cottonseed produced in 1914 was 7,186,000 tons, of which 5,779,665 was worked up into its various products. The oil obtained was 229,260,000 gallons. The oil cake is largely exported to England, where it is used as food for cattle, and the oil to France, Italy, and other olive growing countries of Europe, whence much of it returns to us mixed with olive oil. The exportation of cottonseed oil for 1915 amounted to 318,366,525 lbs., valued at $21,872,948. For a description of the process of extraction, see A. J. P., 1896, 42; also 1898, 497. Among the recent improvements in the purification of cottonseed oil are the processes of Chisholm using silicate of soda for clarifying and of Baskerville using a paper pulp or cellulose fiber.
This oil is obtained by expression from the seeds previously deprived of their shells. In this state they yield two gallons of oil to the bushel. As first obtained, it is thick and turbid, but it deposits a portion of its impurities on standing.
The oil is clarified by first boiling it with water, to separate the mucilage, and then heating it with a weak solution of sodium hydroxide, which combines with the coloring matter and saponifies a part of the oil. The mixture becomes filled with black flocks, which deposit on standing and leave the oil but slightly colored. The loss in refining is usually from 4 to 7.5 per cent., but occasionally amounts to 12 or 15.
Besides this crude oil, there are three varieties in commerce, more or less purified, recognized as the clarified, the refined, and the winter bleached. The last mentioned is of a pale straw-color, a mild peculiar odor, and a bland sweetish taste, not unlike that of almond oil. The oil is used in the preparations of woollen cloth and morocco leather, and for oiling machinery. It has been found to be an excellent substitute for almond and olive oils in most pharmaceutical preparations in which they are employed, but it does not answer so well in the formation of lead plaster. Citrine ointment carefully prepared with it, too great heat being avoided, retains a rich orange color and proper unctuous consistence.
As this oil is much used for adulterating olive oil, tests to distinguish it are very desirable. The test most depended upon is that known as Balphen's testy a mixed solution of amyl alcohol and carbon disulphide containing 1 per cent. of dissolved sulphur. This is given in the official test. It is stated that cotton seed oil, which has been heated to 250° C. (482° F.) no longer gives many of the characteristic reactions for detecting the oil.
Dose, two to six fluidrachms (7.5—22.5 mils).
Off. Prep.—Linimentum Camphorae, U. S.; Linimentum Ammoniae, U. S.
The Dispensatory of the United States of America, 1918, was edited by Joseph P. Remington, Horatio C. Wood and others.