Related entries: Eucalyptus
"Eucalyptus Kino is an exudation from the stem of various species of Eucalyptus." Br.
Eucalypti Gummi, Br. 1898; Australian Kino.
Eucalyptus kino is prepared from a number of species of Eucalyptus, but most of the commercial article is prepared from E. rostrata, a tree which is very abundant in Western Australia. This tree received its name from the rastrate character of the opercula. Masses of kino are sometimes found in cavities between the wood and the bark, this being due to the evaporation of the sap in these places. It is usually obtained by incising the trees and collecting the exuding liquid which is then dried in the sun. It has been stated that five hundred pounds of the kino are sometimes yielded in a single year by one tree, but this seems to be a great exaggeration. Occasionally the juice reaches England unevaporated. Kino juice has a fine deep red color, a slightly aromatic odor, and a decidedly astringent taste, and on evaporation yields a genuine kino in varying amount. It must not be confounded with the so-called Liquid Kino, or apple tree juice, which is obtained from incisions in the Angophora intermedia or narrow-leaved apple tree of Australia. This varies from the consistency and colorless-ness of water to an orange brown or reddish-brown liquid as thick as molasses. It contains catechin and tannic acid, and is said to be especially employed for the purposes of tanning nets.
Properties.—Australian kino usually occurs in dark, reddish-brown (not reddish-black) masses or grains, which when sufficiently thin may be translucent and garnet-like. This form of kino is at the present time very largely used and while similar to the official or East Indian Kino in physical and therapeutical properties has not in solution the tendency to gelatinize. For further information concerning it the reader is referred to an elaborate paper on it by J. H. Maiden, in P. J., Oct., 1889; also A. J. P., 1897, 1.
"In very dark reddish-brown grains or small masses. Thin fragments transparent and ruby-red, or garnet-red. Inodorous; taste astringent. Tough and adhering to the teeth when chewed. Not less than 80 per cent. soluble in water, Almost entirely soluble in alcohol (90 per cent.)." Br.
Eucalyptus kino contains catechin, pyro-catechin and kinoin, and in some specimens a volatile oil, giving a slightly aromatic odor to the drug, which is especially developed by hydrochloric acid. J. H. Maiden (A. J. P., 1895, 575) states that Australian kino contains eudesmin and aromadendrin. The former of these when purified exists as a pure white mass with a luster resembling spermaceti. It is soluble in hot water, but crystallizes out again on cooling. It is soluble in alcohol, ether, acetic ether, and chloroform, but not in benzene, petroleum spirit, or carbon disulphide. It is dissolved by sulphuric acid with a dark color changing to purple, by nitric acid with a beautiful yellow color. Its formula is given as C26H30O8, and its melting point as 99° C. (210.2° F.). The second substance was also obtained crystallized from boiling water, and melted at 162° C. (323.6° F.). No analysis has been made of it.
Uses.—It does not equal kino in astringency. It is used for diarrheas of relaxation, and other affections for which kino has been employed, and is also largely employed as the basis of lozenges and gargles for the relief of relaxed conditions of the pharynx.
Dose, from five to twenty grains (0.3-1.3 Gm.).
Off. Prep.—Trochiscus Kino Eucalypti, Br.
The Dispensatory of the United States of America, 1918, was edited by Joseph P. Remington, Horatio C. Wood and others.