Related entries: Ipecac
"One hundred mils of Fluidextract of Ipecac yields not less than 1.8 Gm. nor more than 2.2 Gm. of the ether-soluble alkaloids of ipecac." U. S. "Liquid Extract of Ipecacuanha contains in 100 millilitres 2 grammes of the alkaloids of Ipecacuanha Root." ".
Extractum Ipecacuanhae Liquidum, Br.; Liquid Extract of Ipecacuanha; Extrait liquide d'Ipecacuanha, Fr.; Flüssiges Ipecacuanhaextrakt, G.
"Ipecac, in No. 60 powder, one thousand grammes [or 35 ounces av., 120 grains]. Prepare a Fluidextract by Type Process B, using a mixture of one hundred mils [or 3 fluidounces, 183 minims] of diluted hydrochloric acid, two hundred mils [or 6 fluid-ounces, 366 minims] of alcohol and two hundred mils [or 6 fluidounces, 366 minims] of water as Menstruum I, and a mixture of two volumes of alcohol and three volumes of water as Menstruum II. Reserve the first eight hundred mils [or 27 fluidounces, 24 minims] of percolate. After dissolving the soft extract in the reserve liquid, assay a portion as directed below, and, from the result thus obtained, ascertain by calculation the amount of alkaloids in the remainder of the liquid and dilute this with enough of Menstruum II to make each one hundred mils of the finished Fluidextract contain 2 Gm. of the ether-soluble alkaloids of ipecac." U. S.
"Ipecacuanha Root, in No. 120 powder, 1000 grammes; Alcohol (90 per cent.), a sufficient quantity. Pack the Ipecacuanha Root uniformly in a conical percolator, add two hundred millilitres of the Alcohol, and set aside for twelve hours; then percolate with successive portions, each of two hundred millilitres, of the Alcohol, added at intervals of twelve hours, until the liquid begins to drop from the orifice of the percolator. Continue the percolation with more of the Alcohol until seven hundred and fifty millilitres of percolate have been collected. Reserve this portion. Then percolate until exhaustion is complete; recover the alcohol from this percolate by distillation, and dissolve the residual extract in the reserved portion." Br.
Assay of Fluidextract of Ipecac.—"From a pipette drop 10 mils of Fluidextract of Ipecac evenly over the surface of 10 Gm, of purified sawdust (see Part III), and evaporate it to dryness at a temperature not exceeding 80° C. (176° F.). Transfer the impregnated sawdust to a 250 mil flask and add 100 mils of ether. Rinse the dish in which the mixture was evaporated with 6 mils of ammonia water, previously diluted with an equal volume of water, used in several portions, and add the rinsings to the flask. Stopper the flask and shake in vigorously every few minutes, during two hours. Now add 15 mils of distilled water, again shake the flask well, and when the sawdust has subsided decant 50 mils of the ether solution, representing 5 mils of the Fluidextract. Completely extract the alkaloids from this solution by shaking out with weak sulphuric acid. Collect the acid washings in a separator; add ammonia water until the solution is decidedly alkaline to litmus, and completely extract the alkaloids by shaking out repeatedly with ether. Evaporate the combined ether washings to dryness, dissolve the alkaloid from the residue in exactly 10 mils of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. and titrate the excess of acid with fiftieth-normal potassium hydroxide V.S., cochineal T.S. being used as indicator (see Proximate Assays, Part III).
"Each mil of tenth-normal sulphuric acid V.S. consumed corresponds to 24 milligrammes of the ether-soluble alkaloids of ipecac." U. S.
"Determine the proportion of alkaloids in the liquid extract thus obtained by the following process: Introduce 5 millilitres of the liquid extract into a separator and add 4 millilitres of water, 1 millilitre of diluted sulphuric acid, and 10 millilitres of ether. Shake, and separate the ethereal solution. Repeat the shaking with 5 millilitres of ether and again separate. Wash the mixed ethereal solutions in a second separator with two successive portions, each of 5 millilitres, of water, and add the -washings to the contents of the first separator. Shake this aqueous liquid with 10 millilitres of chloroform and excess of solution of ammonia. Separate the chloroformic solution and filter it through a small filter-paper into a tared dish. Repeat the shaking with chloroform, separation, and filtration, twice, finally washing the filter-paper with a little chloroform. Evaporate the mixed chloroformic solutions to about 2 millilitres, add 5 millilitres of ether, evaporate, dry at a temperature not exceeding 80° C. (176° F.) and weigh the residual alkaloids. To the remainder of the liquid extract add sufficient of the Alcohol to produce a Liquid Extract of Ipecacuanha containing in 100 millilitres 2 grammes of the alkaloids of Ipecacuanha Root. Examined by the foregoing process Liquid Extract of Ipecacuanha is found to contain in 100 millilitres 2 grammes of the alkaloids of Ipecacuanha Root. Limit of error 0.1 gramme in excess or defect. This Liquid Extract contains 2 grammes of the alkaloids of Ipecacuanha Root in 100 millilitres; 110 minims contains 2 grains." Br.
The menstruum for the U. S. fluidextract was altered in the U. S. P. IX by the addition of hydrochloric acid, which combines with the alkaloids and more thoroughly exhausts the ipecac. It was proved by J. U. Lloyd that when alcohol alone is used a portion of emetine escapes solution. On the other hand, it is known that when the menstruum is more aqueous large amounts of the pectinous principles are taken up, and it is very desirable to separate these in order to prevent their appearance as a flocculent precipitate in syrup of ipecac; but efficiency is to be sought for as the first desideratum, and hence a menstruum which will extract the activity and make a fluidextract that will not let fall a bulky precipitate of inert matter has been secured; usually this will not mix with syrup without slight precipitation, but the improved official process for syrup of ipecac should effectually separate any precipitate resulting from the presence of apotheme in the fluidextract. The British liquid extract (1914) is standardized; the excellent researches of Paul and Cownley on ipecac, and the assay work of Kremel, Keller, and others, undoubtedly prompted the introduction of the process for the liquid extract. (See Ipecacuanha.) It will probably be found, however, that the V. S. menstruum is preferable. An acetic extract of ipecac (dry) is used in Great Britain; it has been shown that the heating necessary to dry it is injurious to its emetic properties. (P. J., 1895, 158.)
This fluidextract is a thin, dark reddish-brown, transparent liquid, of a bitterish, slightly acrid taste, but without the nauseous flavor of the root. It is a convenient preparation for adding to expectorant and diaphoretic mixtures, and is used officially in preparing the syrup of ipecac, and other preparations named below.
Dose, as emetic, fifteen to thirty minims (0.9-1.8 mils); as an expectorant, one to two minims (0.06-0.12 mil).
Off. Prep.—Syrupus Ipecacuanhae, U. S.; Tinctura Ipecacuanhae et Opii, N. F.; Vinum Ipecacuanhae, Br., N. F.; Mistura Rhei Composita, N. F.; Syrupus Asari Compositus, N. F.; Syrupus Cimicifugae Compositus, N. F.
The Dispensatory of the United States of America, 1918, was edited by Joseph P. Remington, Horatio C. Wood and others.