Ol. Cari [Caraway Oil]
"A volatile oil distilled from the fruit of Carum Carvi Linné (Fam. Umbelliferae), and yielding not less than 50 per cent., by volume, of carvone [C10H14O = 150.11]. Preserve it in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles, in a cool place, protected from light." U. S. " Oil of Caraway is the oil distilled from Caraway Fruit, and rectified." Br.
Oleum Carui, Br.; Huile volatile de Carvi, Fr. Cod.; Essence de Carvi, Fr.; Oleum Carvi, P. G.; Kümmelöl, Carvon, G.
This oil is prepared to a considerable extent by our distillers. The fresh fruit is cultivated in Holland yields nearly 6 per cent. of oil, while the German fruit yields about 4 per cent. The oil of caraway is somewhat viscid, of a pale yellow color, becoming brownish by age, with the odor of the fruit, and an aromatic acrid taste. Its sp. gr. is differently given at 0.946 (Baume), 0.931 (Brande), 0.916 (Buignet), and 0.900 to 0.910 at 25° C. (77° F.). (U. S. P.) It is dextrogyrate in its relation to polarized light. (Buignet, J. P. C., Oct., 1861, p. 261.) It consists of two liquid oils, of different boiling points, and separable by distillation:—one a hydrocarbon called carvene, C10H16, of the specific gravity 0.849 and boiling point 176° C. (349° F.), now recognized as identical with d-limonene, the other, the valuable constituent, d-carvone, C10H14O, of the sp. gr. 0.9638 and boiling point 224° C. (435° F.). This latter constituent is often extracted from the oil and prepared in a pure state by taking advantage of the formation of a crystalline compound of carvone and hydrogen sulphide, which can then be decomposed by treatment with alcoholic potassium hydroxide.
Sulphides are found in the aqueous distillate which comes over with the oil, as are also several constituents which are ordinarily considered only to accompany destructive distillation products as methyl alcohol, acetaldehyde, etc.
Oil of caraway is used to impart flavor to medicines, and to correct their nauseating and griping effects.
Gmeiner (B. Thier. W., 1909, p. 695) recommends the use of oil of caraway in the treatment of scabies. He employs a solution in castor oil containing five parts of alcohol and oil of caraway in seventy-five parts of castor oil.
Dose, from one to five minims (0.06-0.3 mil).
Off. Prep.—Pilula Aloes, Br.; Spiritus Juniperi Compositus, U. S.; Elixir Cardamomi Compositum (from Compound Spirit), N. F.; Mistura Carminativa, N. F.; Spiritus Cardamomi Compositus, N. F.
The Dispensatory of the United States of America, 1918, was edited by Joseph P. Remington, Horatio C. Wood and others.