346. THEOBROMA.—CACAO. CHOCOLATE NUT. The seed of Theobro'ma caca'o Linné. Habitat: Mexico; cultivated in the West Indies. About the size of an almond, flattened, invested with a thin, longitudinally wrinkled testa, varying from reddish to grayish-brown in color; somewhat ovate in shape, the hilum being situated on the broader end. The cotyledons are brown, oily, somewhat ridged. Odor agreeable when bruised; taste bitterish, oily. Contains 45 to 53 per cent. of fixed oil (Cacao Butter), and 1.5 per cent. of theobromine, an alkaloid similar to caffeine. Chocolate is made by roasting the seed, removing the testa, then powdering the kernels, forming the powder into cakes with water, and flavoring with vanilla or other substances.
THEOBROMINE AND ITS COMPOUNDS.—THEOBROMINA, C7H7N4O2.-3,7-dimethyl-xanthine, occurs also in Kola (Cola, 345), etc., also made synthetically, action and uses same as caffeine.
THEOBROMINE SODIUM SALICYLATE ("Diuretin").—A white powder, odorless, soluble in water. Dose: 15 gr. (1 Gm.).
Theobromine Sodium Acetate (Agurin), has great solubility and is well tolerated by the stomach. Dose: 15 gr. (1 Gm.).
Preparations of Theobromine.—Obtained from an infusion of cacao, precipitating it with lead acetate, removing excess of lead by H2S, evaporating, and exhausting the residue with boiling alcohol. The alkaloid separates on cooling. Sparingly soluble in cold water, alcohol, and ether.
346a. OLEUM THEOBROMATIS, U. S.—CACAO BUTTER. A fixed oil expressed from the seed. A yellowish-white, brittle, fatty solid, of tallow-like consistence, melting at 30° to 33°C. (86° to 91.4°F.), about the temperature of the body; has a faint, chocolate-like taste and agreeable odor. Should respond to the various important official tests (see U.S.P.). Contains palmitin, stearin, laurin, olein (small quantity), theobromine, and glycerides of formic, acetic, and butyric acids. Employed largely in making suppositories.
A Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy, 1917, was written by Lucius E. Sayre, B.S. Ph. M.