545. BRYONIA, N.F.—BRYONY. The root of Bryo'nia al'ba and of Bryonia dioi'ca Linné. Off. in U.S.P. 1890. A dull reddish-brown, longitudinally wrinkled root, usually appearing in the market in transverse disks about 50 to 100 mm. (2 to 4 in.) in diameter, of a white or yellowish-white color; bark thin, with a thin, friable cork; the bark is separated by a brown cambium line from the meditullium, in which the wood-bundles are arranged radically and concentrically; the wood-wedges and zones are separated by rather broad rays and concentric circles of parenchymatous tissue; fracture short. Inodorous; taste disagreeably bitter. The active principle is bryonin, C48H80O19, an intensely bitter glucoside, soluble in water, but best extracted with strong alcohol. Obtained by precipitating the hydro-alcoholic percolate with tannin. The moist tannin compound is mixed with lead oxide and then digested with alcohol. The alcoholic solution yields bryonin on evaporation. Drastic hydragogue cathartic, formerly much used in the treatment of dropsy, but now superseded by jalap. Dose: 10 to 30 gr. (0.6 to 2 Gm.).
Tinctura Bryoniae (10 per cent.) (U.S.P. 1890), Dose: 1 to 4 fl. dr. (4 to 15 Mils).
A Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy, 1917, was written by Lucius E. Sayre, B.S. Ph. M.