HABITAT.—Asia (originally); now found in almost all parts of the world, in kitchens, laundries, and any warm, damp room. Nocturnal in habit, feeding omnivorously on vegetable and animal products.
DESCRIPTION.—A large (1 in. long), dark brown, short-winged, broad, flat, oval insect with long, thread-like antennae. Wings of the female rudimentary; of the male not reaching quite to the tip of the abdomen. Odor disagreeable.
OTHER SPECIES.—Periplaneta americana (American cockroach) is larger than orientalis, lighter brown in color, and has the wings well developed in both sexes. Numerous in houses about the water pipes; also abundant, often in green-houses, feeding injuriously on various plants.
Ectobia germanica (German cockroach or Croton Bug), very common in New England cities; smaller than the two preceding roaches (about 1/2 in. long), very light (yellowish-brown) in color, with two longitudinal dark stripes upon the prothorax.
Blatta gigantea, found in the West Indies, attains a length of 2 inches.
CONSTITUENTS.—Foetid oil, ammonia, trimethylamine, and a crystallizable principle, not diuretic, antihydropin.
ACTION AND USES.—Diuretic. Dose: 5 to 10 gr. (0.3 to 0.6 Gm.), in powder or tincture.
A Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy, 1917, was written by Lucius E. Sayre, B.S. Ph. M.