ACTEA ALBA and RUBRA. White and red Cohosh, or Baneberry, Toadroot. From Canada to Carolina, in woods. Root bitter, repellent, nervine, used for debility in Canada. Equivalent of Botrophis. Plant and berries poisonous, said to be liked by toads. Berries white or red in the second species. Wrongly blended by L. with A. spicata or A. nigra of Europe, which has black berries.
Medical Flora, or Manual of the Medical Botany of the United States of North America, Vol. 2, 1830, was written by C. S. Rafinesque.