and other agents not mentioned in the preceding pages.
*Adonis Vernalis,—is a plant of the nat. ord. Ranunculaceae, (which contains Aconite, Pulsatilla, Podophyllum, etc.). It contains a glucoside named Adonidin, which acts almost exactly like Digitalin, but is much more powerful, and without any cumulative property. It has been used largely in Europe for cardiac failure due to organic lesion, but is thought to be less certainly beneficial in valvular diseases than Digitalis. Besides its power as a cardiac tonic, it is also diuretic, and is very liable to produce vomiting and diarrhoea. The Infusion (ℨss-ij of the root to ℥vj of water) may be given in doses of ℥ss every 2-4 hours, or Adonidin itself, in doses of gr. 1/3, four to six times daily.
*Apiolum, Apiol,—is a non-volatile, oily liquid, of green color, acid reaction, and pungent taste, extracted from the fruit of Petroselinum sativum, Parsley (nat. ord. Umbelliferae). It is probably a mixture of several substances, and is used in France as a remedy for intermittents and the amenorrhoea of anaemia, in one dose of gr. xv. As sold here it is generally inert as an emmenagogue, but very active as an article of commerce.
*Boldus, Boldo,—the leaves and stems of Peumus Boldus, a Chilian shrub. It is chiefly used as a substitute for quinine, and as a tonic for cases of chronic hepatic torpor. In S. America it is used for gonorrhoea and chronic cystitis. Dose of tincture (1/8) ♏x-xx.
*Cascara Amarga, Honduras bark,—is the bark of a Mexican tree used as an alterative in syphilis and various skin affections. It is certainly a very powerful tonic, but the use of alcohol and tobacco is said to counteract its usefulness. Dose, of the fluid extract, ℥ss-j.
*Cereus, (Cactus Grandiflorus,)—is highly recommended in functional disorders of the heart, and in cardiac dyspnoea. Dose of fluid extract, gtt. x-xx.
*Chaulmoogra Oil, from seeds of Gynocardia odorata,—is credited with a few cures of leprosy, and is recommended as an external application in scaly eczema, psoriasis, syphilitic skin diseases, chronic rheumatism, rheumatic arthritis, and tabes mesenterica. Dose, gtt. v-x, in capsules, or Gynocardic Acid, which is less nauseous, in doses of gr. ss-iij.
Chrysarobinum, Chrysarobin,—is a mixture of proximate principles extracted from Goa-powder, a substance found in cavities of decay in the trunk of Andira Araroba, a Brazilian tree of the nat. ord. Leguminosae. It is often improperly named "Chrysophanic Acid," and, used locally, it produces diffuse dermatitis, often followed by follicular and furuncular inflammation. It is a useful application in psoriasis and vegetable parasitic diseases, but should not be used over a large surface at one time.
- Unguentum Chrysarobini,—strength 10 per cent.
*Damiana,—the leaves of the Mexican plant Turnera aphrodisiaca, is the popular aphrodisiac now with the charlatans who advertise "manhood restorers." It is probably a stimulant diuretic, a bitter tonic, and, in sufficient doses, a purgative. Reports vary much as to its aphrodisiac powers. Dose, of fluid extract, ℨj-ij, up to ℥j daily.
Eriodictyon, Eriodictyon (Yerba Santa),—the leaves of Eriodictyon glutinosum, a Californian shrub of the nat. ord. Hydrophyllaceae. It is an excellent expectorant, usefully employed in bronchial and laryngeal affections, and covers the taste of Quinine in a remarkable manner. Dose, of the fluid extract, ℥ss-j; of an elixir or Syrup, ℥j-ij. When employed as a vehicle for the cinchona alkaloids, about ℥j is necessary for each 10 or 15 grains.
*Erythrophloeum, Bark, (Sassy Bark, Ordeal Bark),—is the bark of Erythrophloeum Guinense, an African tree of the nat. ord. Leguminosae; used by the negroes as an ordeal in witchcraft trials. When used in quantity, it causes severe cephalalgia, nausea and vomiting, narcosis and death. It is used in Africa as a remedy for intermittents, dysentery and colic;—and in England it is believed to resemble Digitalis in its action on both the circulation and the renal secretion. It contains an alkaloid, Erythroploeine, which seems to combine the properties of both Digitalin and picrotoxin, causing convulsions like the latter agent. It has been used with benefit in dilated heart, and in mitral disease and dropsy. Dose of the tincture (1 in 10), ♏v-x; of the watery extract, gr. ss-j.
*Fuchsin, Magenta, Rosanilin Hydrochlorate,—is an anilin dye occurring in brilliant crystals with a green lustre, and is said to have a remarkable influence in albuminuria with oedema, diminishing the quantity of albumen in all cases, and arresting it entirely in many. Dose, gr. j-iij thrice daily, in pill. Full doses have produced salivation, vomiting, diarrhoea, etc., and when thrown into the veins it has caused tremor, staggering gait, albuminuria, and even fatty degeneration of the kidneys,—symptoms possibly due to the presence of arsenic or anilin as impurities.
Hydrangea, (Hydrangea Arborescens).—The root of this plant has long been used by the Cherokee Indians in calculous affections, and is of decided utility in these disorders, promoting the removal of gravel, relieving pain, etc. Dose of fluid extract, ℨss-ij; of decoction, ℥j-ij.
Hydrogen Dioxide, H2O2,—is official in the aqueous solution, Aqua Hydrogenii Dioxidi, which contains about 3 per cent. of the pure dioxide, corresponding to about 10 volumes of available oxygen. When fresh, it is one of the most powerful oxidizing agents known. In contact with a suppurating surface it generates a white foam, the result of its action on pus. Used internally it imparts oxygen to the blood, improves digestion and relieves spasm of the respiratory apparatus. Dose of the Aqua, ℨj-iij diluted with 3 to 4 of water.
*Jequirity,—the seeds of Abrus precatorius, an Indian plant of the nat. ord. Leguminosae, which are made into a lotion by macerating 155 grains of them in powder in 17 fluid ounces of cold water, and filtering. It rapidly produces a purulent or croupous conjunctivitis, in severity proportionate to the number of applications, which, on subsiding, is found to have destroyed old granulations, and other formations, as pannus, corneal ulcers, etc. The seeds are very poisonous, and their application to the eye is a dangerous procedure, the resulting inflammation being often incontrollable.
*Kava-Kava, root of Piper methysticum,—is intoxicant, diuretic and motor-depressant. A moderate dose is tonic and stimulant. It is highly recommended in gout, gonorrhoea, chronic gleet and obstinate cystitis. Dose, of root or fluid extract, ℨss-j.
Lippia Mexicana,—is recommended as a sedative expectorant in various bronchial affections, especially in coughs due to catarrhal inflammation of the respiratory passages. It is a creeping shrub of the nat. ord, Verbenaceae, and contains a volatile oil named Lippiol. Dose, of the tincture, ℨss-j.
*Manaca, Franciscea uniflora,—is advertised as a purgative, diuretic, emmenagogue and anti-syphilitic, but especially as a remedy for acute and chronic rheumatism. Dose of fluid extract, ♏v-ℨj, several times a day.
*Myrtus Chekan, a Chilian plant;—is recommended as an expectorant in bronchitis, winter cough, etc., also in chronic cystitis and catarrhal affections of other mucous membranes. Dose, of the fluid extract, ℨj-℥ss.
*Piperazinum, Piperazin, C4H10N2,—is a synthetical basic compound formed by the action of Ammonia upon Ethylene Bromide, and occurs as a white, crystalline powder, readily soluble in water. It liquefies when exposed to the air, from which it greedily absorbs water and CO2. With uric acid it forms the most soluble known urate, requiring but 50 parts of water for its solution, while lithium urate requires 368 of water to dissolve it. Piperazin is non-toxic, non-irritant to mucous membranes, is readily absorbed from the stomach and circulates in the blood unchanged. It readily neutralizes and dissolves gouty deposits, facilitating their removal from the tissues. Dose, gr. v-x,—in gout a minimum of gr. xv daily in carbonated water, with an equal quantity of Phenocoll Hydrochloride added thereto when there is much pain and fever.
*Piscidia Erythrina, Jamaica Dogwood,—has been introduced as a substitute for Opium, being anodyne, hypnotic and narcotic, sialogogue, diaphoretic and mydriatic. It lowers reflex action, and arterial tension after a brief rise, weakens the heart and causes death by asphyxia. It is a good hypnotic and anodyne. Dose, of the fluid extract, ℨss-j cautiously.
*Saccharinum, Saccharin,—is a derivative of Toluene, a coal-tar product, from which it is prepared by a complicated process. Its chemical title is Benzoyl-sulphonic-imide, and it occurs as a white, amorphous powder, of very sweet taste, soluble in alcohol and in ether (difference from Sugar), sparingly in cold water, more so in hot water. It is an efficient antiseptic, and is said to be 220 times sweeter to the taste than sugar. It has no injurious action on man, and is a useful substitute for sugar in cases of diabetes, but has no curative action upon that disease.
*Sanitas,—is a disinfecting solution obtained by the action of water upon oxidized turpentine, its active principle being Hydrogen Dioxide. It is not poisonous, and does not stain the linen,—two qualities which strongly recommend it.
*Tonga,—is a preparation imported from Fiji, consisting of root-fibres, leaves and inner bark of some plants, believed to be Raphidophora vitiensis and Premna tatiensis. From this a fluid extract is prepared which has proved very efficient in ℨj doses ter die, for neuralgia.
*Verbascum Thapsus, Mullein Plant,—is being highly praised as a substitute for Cod-liver Oil in phthisis and other wasting diseases. It is used in infusion, ℥iv of the fresh leaves in a pint of fresh milk, thrice daily.
Viburnum Prunifolium, Black Haw, (nat. ord. Caprifoliace),—is a sedative and tonic to the uterine and ovarian nerve-centres. It is used as an anti-abortive, and in uterine congestion, ovarian irritation, irregular menstruation with dysmenorrhoea and menorrhagia. The fluid extract is official, and may be given in doses of ♏xx-ℨij, with aromatics, nervous sedatives, Cannabis Indica or Morphine. Viburnum Opulus is highly valued by those who have used it as a remedy for uterine and other abdominal pains. Its preparations are used in the same doses as the other. Though not generally classed among emmenagogues, being rather uterine sedatives, these agents often promote the menstrual flow by relieving pain and irritation of the ovaries at the period.
A Compend of Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and Prescription Writing, 1902, by Sam'l O. L. Potter, M.D., M.R.C.P.L.