- Abortifacients: Remedies that produce abortion.
- Alteratives: Such remedies as increase metabolism and thus favor elimination of waste products from the system.
- Anaphrodisiacs: Remedies that act as sexual sedatives and in this way decrease sexual desire.
- Anhidrotics: Will suppress or diminish perspiration.
- Antagonists: Remedies that will counteract the action of other remedies, or oppose their action.
- Anthelmintics: Will expel or destroy worms in the intestinal tract.
- Antidotes: Remedies that will neutralize or counteract the action of poisons.
- Antigalactagogues: Remedies that decrease the secretion of milk.
- Antilithics: Remedies that prevent the formation of calculi, or counteract their formation.
- Antiperiodics,: Remedies, that counteract or antagonize diseases that have a periodic tendency.
- Antiphlogistics: Remedies that will reduce or counteract inflammatory processes.
- Antipyretics: Remedies that reduce the temperature of the body either by decreasing oxygenation or by inhibiting the heat center in the brain.
- Antispasmodics control spasms and convulsions, acting on sets of nerves, or some particular nerve or tract.
- Antizymotics: Such remedies as will prevent or antagonize fermentation, including antiseptics and disinfectants.
- Apositics: Remedies that will suspend hunger.
- Aphrodisiacs: Such remedies as will increase or stimulate sexual desire and power.
- Astringents: Remedies that in contact with tissues of the body cause them to contract and check secretion.
- Carminatives: Medicines that expel flatus from the gastro-intestinal tract and thus relieve pain produced by pressure.
- Classes of heart remedies: These are divided into stimulants or tonic and sedative. Vaso-motor stimulants which stimulate vaso-motor constrictor nerves and thus increase blood pressure; vaso-motor sedatives which act on the vaso-dilator nerves and thus decrease blood pressure.
- Classes of Intestinal Remedies: Such remedies as act on the intestinal tract and produce evacuation.
- Cholagogues act on the liver. increasing flow of bile, thus causing bilious stool.
Drastic cathartics are violent and quick in action.
Hydragogue cathartics produce watery stool.
Laxatives are mild in their action.
Purgatives produce semi-solid stool and are more powerful than laxatives.
- By this can be seen that cathartics, generally speaking, are purgatives, but whose actions are different according to what class of the above they belong.
- Demulcents: Mucilaginous or oily substances for external use or application to allay irritation.
- Deodorants: Destructive to offensive odors.
- Depressants: Have a depressing effect on the nervous action, either generally, partially or locally, and are divided into classes:
- Anodynes depress the nerve centers and thus relieve pain.
Hypnotics induce sleep.
Anesthetics depress the cerebro spinal centers, and in this way causes insensibility. Locally applied they cause local anesthesia.
- Diaphoretics: Increase secretion of the skin. Sudorifics produce marked perspiration, while the simple or mild diaphoretics only produce moisture or mild perspiration.
- Diuretics: Increase secretion of urine by their action on the kidneys. They are divided into depurants which increase solids in the urine, and hydragogue, which increase the watery elements of the urine.
- Emetics: May act as follows, viz.: by contact with terminals of the pneumogastric nerve in the stomach; by acting on the vomiting center in the brain, or by acting directly or indirectly through the nervous system.
- Emmenagogues: Remedies that stimulate the menstrual flow.
- Emollients: Remedies used for external application to soften tissue.
- Escharotics: Substances which, if applied to the skill, will produce eschars; in other words, caustics.
- Excitants: Stimulate nerves beyond their normal action, and, if continued or given in too large doses,, will cause irritation or spasms of the muscles. In these cases the mental faculties will be excited and confused. They may also act through the nerves on a set of muscles or certain muscles.
- Expectorants: Such remedies as will increase or promote the secretion from the bronchial mucous membrane; these may be stimulating or depressing.
- Galactagogues: Such remedies as will increase the secretion of milk by stimulating the lacteal glands.
- Hemostatics: Remedies that will arrest hemorrhages are termed hemostatics. These may be local or general. They are sometimes called styptics.
- Hepatics: Pertaining to the liver and generally refer us to remedies which exert a direct influence on the liver.
- Parasiticides: Any substance that will destroy parasites.
- Parturifacients: Remedies that hasten parturition by increasing uterine contractions.
- Refrigerants: Reduce the bodily heat.
- Restoratives: These are remedies that will supply any lacking elements to the system either by chemical changes or direct action.
- Sedatives: Are remedies that relieve nervous irritation, decrease nerve activity and have a soothing influence on the nerves on which they act. They are divided into general, local and special according to their action, whether they act on the general nervous system, locally, or on certain nerves only.
- Sialagogues: Remedies that increase the flow of saliva.
- Stimulants: Are agents that stimulate nerves to normal action. Some act on the general nervous system; others on special nerves.
- Tonics: Remedies which strengthen the nervous system, improve nutrition, restore waste material and favor normal activity of all the organs of the body.
- Trophics: Such agents as supply nutrition or stimulate the tissues to absorb the required nutrition are called trophics.
The Materia Medica and Clinical Therapeutics, 1905, was written by Fred J. Petersen, M.D.