Together with his brother, Mr. C. G. Lloyd, the writer began, in 1884, a quarterly publication entitled Drugs and Medicines of North America, with the object of considering, consecutively, the American remedial agents then in use by members of the various professions of medicine in America. It was planned to give the historical record of every American medicinal plant, as well as its pharmaceutical preparations, whether Pharmacopeial or otherwise. The literature on the subject being largely Americana, the authors believed that they were in a position to do passable justice to the subject, inasmuch as they had, for a number of years, given much study in that direction.
This publication was kindly received by the medical and pharmaceutical professions of America, as well as by scientists throughout the world. However, notwithstanding the cordial reception of the work, its authors became convinced that, before going further in this direction, much reference literature not then at their command should be provided. Owing to this fact, and to the increasing cares of business, and notwithstanding the additions that were continually being made to their libraries, the publication was reluctantly suspended with Number 5 of Volume II, which appeared in June, 1887.
With the hope of again resuming the work thus temporarily (as it was hoped) laid aside, even more persistent efforts were made to collect books, pamphlets, essays, travelers' narratives, and other literature concerning the American materia medica, as well as foreign publications, botanical and otherwise, connected with the discovery, introduction, or uses of medicinal plants generally. But now, when the literature on the subject is at last passably satisfactory, the authors comprehend that it is too late for them to hope to resume, much less complete, a work after the nature and plan of Drugs and Medicines of North America.
This definite abandonment of a plan long so ardently cherished, is due, not to the cooling of enthusiasm, but to the multiplicity of duties in other directions, linked with the enervating touch of this writer's more than threescore years. It is earnestly hoped, however, that the connected data brought together in the Lloyd Library through so many years of earnest effort on the part of its founders, and now donated to the world of science, may some day be happily utilized in the resumption of this work by persons younger and less burdened by cares.
Disappointment not Altogether Fruitless.—However, the efforts of the authors of Drugs and Medicines of North America were not altogether fruitless. The publication led to many delightful correspondences with men concerned in like directions, both at home and abroad. Among these may be named the renowned Professor Friedrich A. Flückiger, (of Strassburg University) Germany, then, perhaps, the foremost pharmacologist of the world. With Daniel Hanbury, he had just completed the monumental work on European and Oriental drugs, (including the principal drugs of other parts of the world) known as the Pharmacographia, and was ambitious to continue, in like manner, with the medicinal products of North America. In July, 1894, Professor Flückiger visited America, where he was the guest of the renowned American pharmacists, Dr. Edward R. Squibb, of Brooklyn, and Dr. Frederick Hoffman, of New York City. He had arranged to visit Cincinnati and consummate here a plan for the detailed study of the North American pharmacography, but a period of intense heat then chanced to prevail throughout America, and the aged professor was forced, reluctantly, to abandon his journey to this city. The writer then selected and forwarded to Professor Flückiger, for review, several cases of books dealing with the early American materia medica, such as domestic writings, early American travels, Eclectic and Thomsonian literature, as well as publications of primitive days concerning family medicines and connected preparations. These very much delighted and even surprised Professor Flückiger, both as regards variety and contents. It was then tentatively arranged that a Pharmacography of North American Medicinal Plants and Drugs should be at once inaugurated, the responsibility of the chemistry and the correlation of the chemical and proximate products derived from the American materia medica being assumed by Professor Flückiger, as well as the systematic research of foreign publications in those directions. He designed, also, to institute a series of original investigations in his laboratory, at Strassburg University. The Lloyd Library seemed, even then, competent to furnish the historical data sufficient to establish the records of the plants considered, this writer (John Uri Lloyd) accepting the responsibility of the history, including the sophistications and descriptions of the parts used in medicine, whilst the botanical history, relationships, and kindred descriptions were to be the care of Mr. Curtis Gates Lloyd. The publication was thus to partake of the plan of both Drugs and Medicines of North America, and the Pharmacographia of Flückiger and Hanbury, so well known and so thoroughly established. The work was accordingly commenced, and several historical articles were prepared by the writer, a few of which were forwarded to Professor Flückiger. The unfortunate and lamentable death of that world-renowned pharmacologist, within a very short time after his return to Europe, terminated the enterprise, bringing to the writer one of the greatest disappointments of his life.
Of the drug articles thus prepared for Professor Flückiger, two were subsequently published in the American Journal of Pharmacy, one, titled The California Manna * appearing in July, 1897, and the other, The Destruction of Tobacco in America, ** in November, 1897.
* When Prof. Flückiger visited America (July, 1894), he hoped to obtain historical data that would enable him to give the records of several interesting American productions. In this he failed, and he then associated in his behalf the services of the author of this paper. After much of the work had been done, the death of Prof. Flückiger interrupted the investigation.
These papers (some of them) passed into possession of Prof. Ed. Schaer, of Strassburg University, who translated into German the accompanying work by Professor Lloyd on American Manna, for the pages of the Berichte der Deutschen Pharmaceutischen Gesellschaft.
We present herein, with the knowledge and consent of Prof. Schaer and the author, the original paper on American Manna.—Editor Am. Jour. Pharm.
** When Prof. Flückiger visited America (July, 1894), he hoped to obtain historical data that would enable him to give the records of several interesting American productions. In this he failed, and he then associated in his behalf the services of the author of this paper. After much of the work had been done, the death of Professor Flückiger interrupted the investigation. This paper on Tobacco was one of the subjects considered.—Editor Am. Jour. Pharm.H
Discouragement Leads to Renewed Effort.—Notwithstanding the bitter disappointment in connection with the death of Professor Flückiger, the effort to complete the record of American drugs continued. To this end every sacrifice was made in the way of time, as well as of money investment, in the earnest hope that younger men, more favorably situated, educationally and otherwise, might ultimately take up the work begun by the founders of the Lloyd Library in Drugs and Medicines of North America, their publication of twenty-five years ago. While in their own direction the accomplishment of this object seems no longer possible of attainment, comes a no less hopeful and enthusiastic delight in contemplating what others will yet enjoy in a future day, when the Lloyd Library will be a contributing factor to another's opportunity.
May not the writer, then, be pardoned for repeating that this struggle of the past has not been altogether fruitless, inasmuch as the additions to the Lloyd Library have been earnestly studied as they were collected, thus affording a recreative effort and a stimulus that of necessity enriches knowledge, broadens views, and enlarges opportunities?
Credit Be to Whom Credit is Due.—The foregoing, partially explanatory remarks, touching briefly upon the historical features of the abandoned work to which allusion has so frequently been made, will introduce the text of this Bulletin of the Lloyd Library. The history of such vegetable drugs as are included herein embraces every Pharmacopeial vegetable representative of the Pharmacopeia of the United States, Eighth Decennial Revision, 1900. In preparing this work, the writer has been continually impressed with the fact that the comforts and the triumphs of man, in the present, are made possible by the struggles and the sacrifices of men of the past. It is evident, furthermore, that if past events indicate the future's trend, other links, yet to be added to the lengthening chain, will leave whosoever is now conspicuous in this moment of the passing along an empirical pioneer, as contrasted with the man who stands in the sunshine of the sciences of the future.
In this connection it may be recalled that, at the meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association in Los Angeles, 1909, this writer contributed a paper put together on the spur of the moment, titled A Plea for Empiricism, in which were embodied pleadings for justice in behalf of men no longer upon earth, but whose painstaking work has been far-reaching in its effects. The views then expressed are yet entertained by the writer, and with no less earnestness.
The record of American as well as of foreign drugs establishes that to the so-called empiricists of the past must be credited the discovery and introduction of practically one and all the remedial vegetable agents now in use. To these individuals the professions of medicine and pharmacy are no less indebted than are the people in other walks of life. These facts also permitted the inference (before mentioned) that from the same class, the empiricists, will come other vegetable remedial agents, destined to serve the needs of suffering humanity.
This writer, to-day, believes with heartfelt earnestness, that even the unlettered aborigines of all lands whose products serve civilization, are entitled to civilization's lasting obligations. The story is a common one. Necessity of environment, or accident, led primitive man into a search of nature's secrets. Observant pioneers, or adventurers, applied the discoveries of the aborigines to their own domestic uses. The man of commerce served next his part in the distribution of such drugs and foods, and finally systematic, professional students further elaborated these products that, but for the empiricist of the past, preceded by the aborigines in the time beyond, might not otherwise be known.
The Pharmacopeial Vegetable Materia Medica.—As before stated, the pages that follow carry the titles of every vegetable drug of the Pharmacopeia of the United States, 1900 Revision. Of necessity, only enough is chronicled of each drug's beginning to point to the peoples or the individuals who introduced them to medicine and pharmacy, no attempt being made to follow the details of subsequent manipulation. Brevity in the record is a necessity. References to the Bibliography appended to the work, indicate that an attempt at more than fairly detailed historical credit would have been impracticable, the aim being merely to establish the general introduction of each drug. Nor is the first link in the chain often seen. The beginning of the use of most vegetable remedial agents antedates written history. As a rule, the earliest authorities cited herein base their statements upon those of others, the details being now lost in antiquity, or veiled by tradition. Many worthy compilers, historians, travelers, explorers, and authors, whose part in the passing along will sometime be duly credited, have unquestionably been overlooked, and hence unintentionally neglected. In this connection, a review of the Bibliography of this Bulletin indicates the number of publications cited that, seemingly far from medicine, point to others that are of historic value.
Concerning the Bibliography.—The writer has freely accepted, especially as regards Old World and Oriental products, the statements and references of authorities in whom he has full confidence, deeming it unnecessary to verify bibliographical statements, even though the original documents were conveniently at hand, unless there were a particular reason for so doing. For example, Flückiger and Hanbury's Pharmacographia, and similar works, are accepted as unimpeachable in their reference facts.
The titles only of authoritative works to which reference might have been made would comprise a volume. The list has therefore necessarily been restricted to such as are most important. Whoever wishes to elaborate any subject herein mentioned, will probably find the list suggestively ample, for each, as a rule, carries references to others connected therewith. It will be observed that travelers and explorers, as well as historians, often first refer to medicines used in the countries described by them. In this direction it will be seen that the Lloyd Library is particularly fortunate, as concerns its completeness, there being at this date 32,434 volumes on its shelves, exclusive of pamphlets.
The writer wishes, in conclusion, to thank, especially, the Librarian of the Lloyd Library, Captain William Holden, to whose painstaking care, both in the way of procuring volumes needed and of seeking references as required, as well as of compiling the Bibliography, he is much indebted.
To the Assistant Librarian, Miss Edith Wycoff, who has, in this as in other directions been exceedingly helpful, the writer expresses his sincerest thanks.
To the writer's secretary, Miss Margaret Stewart, M. A., are to be credited the translations from Greek and Latin authors, as well as continued helpful care throughout the entire work.
Several of the articles herein included (as those on Aloes and Pomegranate) are condensations of papers previously published by the writer in the Western Druggist, Chicago. To Dr. Sigmund Waldbott, then in charge of the Lloyd Library, who was of exceptional service in the production of these papers, the writer feels no less indebted now than at the time of their original publication.
For the inspiration of the American Pharmaceutical Association, the author is very grateful. A synopsis of the work was prepared for the society at its Richmond (1910) meeting, but owing to illness of the undersigned was not presented.
This Bulletin on Pharmacopeial drugs expresses so imperfectly the amount of labor that has been expended in its evolution, as to lead the author to admit frankly a degree of humiliation because of the paucity of returns for so great an outlay of time, study, and library research.
Cincinnati, May 19, 1911.
JOHN URI LLOYD.
The History of the Vegetable Drugs of the U.S.P., 1911, was written by John Uri Lloyd.