Extractum Malti.—Extract of Malt.
Related entry: Maltum.—Malt
Preparation.—Take of fresh barley malt any desired amount, water, a sufficient quantity; heat the water to a temperature of from 37.7° to 65.5° C. (100° to 150° F.), and moisten the malt with a portion of it. Pack the moistened malt loosely, in a cylindrical percolator of suitable size, and then add more of the water, at the same temperature, until the percolate appears at the exit. Now close the exit with a cork, and allow the whole to macerate, in a warm place, for from 3 to 6 hours. At the expiration of this time, open the exit, and allow the percolation to proceed, adding fresh supplies of heated water, until the percolate has yielded, in weight, an amount equal to twice that of the malt employed. Lastly, evaporate at a temperature ranging from 80° to 94° C. (about 180° to 200° F.), with constant stirring to the consistence of a soft extract. The only full-strength, diastase-bearing extract of malt is made by means of a vacuum apparatus.
Description.—In the preceding process, if the operation of the percolation be neglected, or if the percolate be allowed to stand a short time previous to evaporation, fermentation will speedily ensue, and the resulting extract will have an acid, disagreeable taste. If the temperature be permitted to rise above the boiling point of water after the extract has become somewhat concentrated, a burnt flavor will be imparted to it. The diastase is destroyed at a less temperature. Extract of malt is a translucent, reddish-brown, adhesive substance, of an agreeable, somewhat sweetish, but not positively saccharine taste. An infusion of pure malt has the correct flavor peculiar to fresh malt, and evaporation does not appreciably increase its sweetness; therefore, should any extract of malt have a decidedly syrup-like taste, it may be suspected that some sweetish substance has been added to it, either to overcome the effects of fermentation or to increase the consistence of the extract without the proper evaporation. Glucose appears to be peculiarly adapted for these purposes, and, if the fermentation be not excessive, the addition of this substance will accomplish both objects. This is, probably the only adulterant that will be found.
Medical Uses and Dosage.—This article was introduced in to this country from Germany, where it had been used for some time as a tonic and nutrient in anorexia, chronic bronchitis, phthisis, asthma, dyspepsia, convalescence from exhausting maladies, and in all diseases accompanied by general debility, and impairment of the vital powers; its beneficial effects in these diseases appear to be due to the diastase and the nutritive principles entering into its composition. It forms an excellent substitute for malt liquors in those cases where even a gentle stimulant is contraindicated. At the present time our manufacturers have thrown many malt preparations upon the market into which iron, cod-liver oil, pepsin, quinine, iodides, etc., enter, and apparently without regard to the compatibilities or incompatibilities of the articles thus thrown together; and it is doubtful whether such mixtures exert as beneficial results in the diseases for which they are recommended, as would ensue were the drugs taken separately and alternately, with the malt extract. The dose of extract of malt is from 1 to 4 fluid drachms in milk, or in soup, repeating it 3 times a day.
Related Preparations.—MALTINE. This is a specialty of the Maltine Manufacturing Company of New York City. It is recommended as a palatable, stable and uniform extract of malt of high diastatic power, differing from other malt extracts in containing in addition to the virtues of malted barley the nutritive principles of wheat and oats.
Maltine Plain, is used extensively as a digestant, nutrient, adjunct infant food, galactagogue, and vehicle. The following maltine preparations are also in common use: (1) Maltine with Cod-liver Oil; (2) Maltine with Pepsin and Pancreatin; (3) Maltine with Hypophosphites—lime, soda, iron; (4) Malto-Yerbine, containing active principles of Yerba Santa; (5) Maltine Ferrated—iron pyrophosphate; (6) Maltine with Phosphate of Iron, Quinia and Strychnia; (7) Maltine with Peptones—beef; (8) Maltine with Wine of Pepsin; (9) Maltine with Coca Wine; (10) Maltine with Cascara Sagrada.
Extractum Malti Compositum.—Compound Extract of Malt.
SYNONYM: Extract of malt and hops.
Preparation.—To 1 part of fresh hops, ground, add 9 parts of malt (1 in 10), and make an extract in the same manner as directed for the simple extract of malt. The odor of the hops is not observed in this preparation owing to the subsequent evaporation, but the bitter taste remains quite distinct. There are many mixtures at present upon the market that contain a greater or lesser amount of extract of malt, but it is not in accordance with our purpose to describe them.
Medical Uses and Dosage.—This preparation differs from the preceding only in the presence of hops, which may impart to it a slight hypnotic influence. It may be used in the same cases, and in the same doses, as named for the extract of malt.
Extractum Malti Fluidum (N. F.)—Fluid Extract of Malt.
Preparation.—Formulary number, 168: "Malt, one thousand grammes (1000 Gm.) [2 lbs. av., 3 ozs., 120 grs.]; alcohol, water, each, a sufficient quantity. Reduce the malt to a coarse powder, not finer than No. 20. Moisten it with five hundred cubic centimeters (500 Cc.) [16 fl℥, 435♏] of a mixture of 1 volume of alcohol and 3 volumes of water, and set it aside well covered, until it has ceased to swell. Then mix it with as much of the menstruum as it will take up without dripping, pack it uniformly, but without pressure, in a percolator, and add enough of the before-mentioned menstruum to cover it. When the liquid begins to drop from the orifice, close the latter, and allow the contents to macerate during 24 hours, adding from time to time more menstruum, if necessary, to keep the malt just covered. Then remove the cork and allow the percolation to proceed until the percolate weighs seven hundred and fifty grammes (750 Gm.) [1 lb. av., 10 ozs., 199 grs.]. Set this aside, well corked, until any suspended matters have been deposited. Then decant the clear liquid and preserve it for use. Note.—The product thus obtained may be regarded as being practically equivalent to the drug in the proportion of minim for grain, the apparent excess of dissolved matters present in the first portions of the percolate being offset by the soluble matters still remaining in the drug, when the percolation is interrupted"—(Nat. Form.).
Description, Medical Uses, and Dosage.—Fluid extract of malt possesses the taste of fresh malt, but is not sweet, and as prepared by the preceding process, will not ferment. It represents in each fluid ounce the soluble principles of 1 1/2 troy ounces of malt. It is a thin, yellow or brownish-yellow liquid. (For uses, see Maltum.) The dose varies according to the individual and effects desired (see Extractum Malti).
King's American Dispensatory, 1898, was written by Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D., and John Uri Lloyd, Phr. M., Ph. D.