Extractum Sennae Fluidum (U. S. P.)—Fluid Extract of Senna.
Related entry: Senna (U. S. P.)—Senna
Preparation.—"Senna, in No. 30 powder, one thousand grammes (1000 Gm.) [2 lbs. av., 3 ozs., 120 grs.]; diluted alcohol, a sufficient quantity to make one thousand cubic centimeters (1000 Cc.) [33 fl℥, 391♏]. Moisten the powder with four hundred cubic centimeters (400 Cc.) [13 fl℥, 252♏] of diluted alcohol, and pack it firmly in a cylindrical percolator; then add enough diluted alcohol to saturate the powder and leave a stratum above it. When the liquid begins to drop from the percolator, close the lower orifice, and, having closely covered the percolator, macerate for 48 hours. Then allow the percolation to proceed, gradually adding diluted alcohol until the senna is exhausted. Reserve the first eight hundred cubic centimeters (800 Cc.) [27 fl℥, 25♏] of the percolate, and evaporate the remainder to a soft extract, dissolve this in the reserved portion, and add enough diluted alcohol to make the fluid extract measure one thousand cubic centimeters (1000 Cc.) [33 fl℥, 391♏]"—(U. S. P.).
Description, Medical Uses, and Dosage.—(See Senna). In this process, the aromatics and Hoffman's anodyne of former processes are omitted. The earlier preparations were also too thick and gave heavy deposits. Glycerin, added to later processes, did not improve the product, so it is now omitted. When it is desirable to aromatize this fluid extract, add 16 minims of oil of cloves dissolved in 1/2 fluid ounce of tincture of ginger to the quantity of the formula. If the senna is passed through a sieve 50 or 60 meshes to the inch, and a funnel-shaped percolator be used, the first pint of tincture will contain most of the valuable portion of the senna, and by observing precautions in its evaporation, it is not injured in the process. As the aromatics are omitted, the fluid extract can be employed to make other fluid extracts, tinctures, or syrups, into which senna enters. This forms a neat preparation of senna of a deep-brown color and the characteristic taste and odor of the leaves. An inert precipitate often separates in large amount, and deposits upon the sides and bottom of the container. Dose, 1 to 4 fluid drachms. The purgative dose for an adult is 1/2 fluid ounce.
Extractum Sennae Fluidum Deodoratum (N. F.)—Deodorized Fluid Extract of Senna.
Preparation.—Formulary number, 174: "Senna; in No. 60 powder, one thousand grammes (1000 Gm.) [2 lbs. av., 3 ozs., 120 grs.]; alcohol, water, each a sufficient quantity. Moisten the senna with three hundred and fifty cubic centimeters 350 Cc.) [11 fl℥, 400♏] of alcohol, pack it firmly in a percolator, and percolate it with alcohol until it is practically exhausted by this menstruum. The alcoholic percolate thus obtained is rejected, and the alcohol may be recovered therefrom by distillation. Then take out the moist powder, dry it, and prepare a fluid extract by the process and menstruum below mentioned: Process A (see F. 135), Menstruum: Diluted alcohol"—(Nat. Form.).
This preparation is intended to carry the laxative qualities of senna without the griping constituents. These are removed by the preliminary percolation by means of alcohol.
Medical Uses and Dosage.—(See Senna). Dose, 1 to 2 fluid drachms.
SYNONYM: Fluid extract of antibilious physic.
Preparation.—Take of senna, in coarse powder, 16 troy ounces; jalap root, in coarse powder, 8 troy ounces; alcohol, a sufficient quantity; carbonate of potassium, 6 drachms; white sugar, 8 troy ounces; diluted alcohol, a sufficient quantity; oil of cloves, 40 minims; oil of anise, 20 minims. Mix the senna and jalap together, and add a sufficient quantity of alcohol to thoroughly moisten them, and let the mixture stand for 24 hours; then transfer it to a percolator, and gradually add alcohol, returning a little of the first that passes till it runs clear. Reserve by itself, of the first percolate, 16 fluid ounces. Then add a sufficient quantity of diluted alcohol to the residuum in the percolator, until the liquid passes but very little impregnated with the properties of the medicine; evaporate this latter solution to 4 fluid ounces, then add the sugar, the carbonate of potassium, the oils of cloves and anise, previously dissolved in a little alcohol, also the reserved tincture, and make 1 1/2 pints of the fluid extract.
Medical Uses and Dosage.—This is a concentrated form of the compound powder of jalap, and may be given with safety in all cases where a purgative is required. Should any resinous matter be deposited, it must be dissolved in alcohol and combined with the extract; the addition of the carbonate of potassium is to enable the resinous matter deposited during evaporation, to be dissolved; also to aid in counteracting the griping property of the medicine. The dose for an adult is 1 fluid drachm, which is about equivalent to 1 drachm of the powder (J. King).
King's American Dispensatory, 1898, was written by Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D., and John Uri Lloyd, Phr. M., Ph. D.