Synonym—Black Sampson, cone flower, purple cone flower.
PART EMPLOYED—The root.
This plant grows throughout the central and western portions of the United States, especially on the elevated tablelands, and in the northern portions, where it was known to the Indians as a cure for snake poison.
There is considerable confusion concerning the identity of the active medicinal species of echinacea. The echinacea purpurea of the Eastern States has been thought to be identical with the echinacea angustifolia of the Western States. It is often used for the same purposes, but is universally disappointing. King introduced it into his dispensatory as rudbeckia purpurea.
- Fluid Extract of the root, miscible with water without material precipitation. Dose, one-fourth to one-half fluid dram.
- Specific Medicine Echinacea. Dose, five to forty or even sixty drops.
- Echafolta is a purified, assayed form of Echinacea. The dosage of both is the same. Externally or for surgical purposes it is advised as superior to the other preparations of Echinacea. It is prescribed for the same conditions.
For from twenty to twenty-five years, Echinacea has been passing through the stages of critical experimentation under the observation of several thousand physicians, and its remarkable properties are receiving positive confirmation. As yet, but few disparaging statements have been made. All who use it correctly fall quickly into line as enthusiasts in its praise; the experience of the writer is similar to that of the rest, the results in nearly all cases having been satisfactory. The laboratory observations have been extensive but are not yet complete.
Physiological Action—The following laboratory observations of its action upon the blood were made by Victor von Unruh, M.D., of New York City
More than one hundred blood counts were made in cases of infectious diseases, mainly in tuberculosis. The results showed that echinacea increases the phagocytic power of the leukocytes; it normalizes the percentage count of the neutrophiles (Arneth count). Hyperleukocytosis and leukopenia are directly improved by echinacea; the proportion of white to red cells is rendered normal; and the elimination of waste products is stimulated to a degree which puts this drug in the first, rank among all alteratives. The stimulation toward phagocytosis become very evident in cases where it was impossible to find any evidence of phagocytosis before echinacea was administered, and where after the use of this drug for a period of only a few days the phagocytes were seen to contain as many as eight bacilli within the cell. In all cases where the percentage count among the neutrophiles (polymorphonuclears) has been such as give an unfavorable prognosis inasmuch as those neutrophiles containing one and two nuclei predominated over those containing three, relatively and absolutely, the administration of echinacea for only two weeks has normalized the percentage so as to give to the class containing three nuclei the absolute and relative majority over those containing one and two nuclei. Echinacea thus gives to the class normally strongest in phagocytosis the power where it obtains in the normal condition of the leukocytes. "Subculoid Echinacea" was used for these experiments.
I have long been assured from the observation of this remedy that it directly influences the opsonic index. I wrote von Unruh directly, asking him for his opinion from his long experience and from his laboratory observations of the action of this remedy. He replied as follows: "Quoting from McFarland's Pathogenic Bacteria, the opsonic theory teaches that the leukocytes are disinclined to take up bacteria unless they are prepared for phagocytosis by contact with certain substances in the serum, that in some manner modify them. This modifying substance is the opsonin. I have definitely demonstrated and am continuing to observe, that the action of echinacea on the leukocytes is such that it will raise phagocytosis to its possible maximum." The logical deduction, therefore, is that the opsonic index is correspondingly raised by this agent.
When a half teaspoonful dose of the tincture is taken into the mouth, a pungent warmth is at once experienced which increases to a tingling, and remains for half an hour after the agent is ejected. It is similar to that of aconite, but not so much solely of the nerve-end organs. The sensation is partly of nerve tingling, and more from an apparent mild nerve irritant effect. It much more resembles the action of zanthoxylum. If a small quantity be swallowed undiluted, it produces an apparent constriction of the throat, sensation of irritation , and strangulation, much greater in some patients than in others, and always disagreeable. The sensation persists for some minutes, notwithstanding the throat is gargled, water is drunk, and the agent entirely removed.
The toxic effect of this agent is manifested by reduction of temperature, the frequency of the pulse is diminished, the mucous membrane becomes dry and parched, accompanied with a prickly sensation; there is headache of a bursting character, and a tendency to fainting is observed if the patient assumes an erect posture. After poisonous doses, these symptoms are more intensified. The face and upper portion of the trunk are flushed, there is pain throughout the body, which is more marked in the large articulations. There is dimness of vision, intense thirst, gastric pains followed by vomiting and watery diarrhea. No fatal case of poisoning is recorded, to our knowledge, and only when given in extreme doses are any of the above undesirable influences observed.
The physiological effects are manifested by its action upon the blood, and upon the mucous surfaces. The natural secretions are at first augmented, the temperature is then lowered, the pulse is slowed, and the capillary circulation restored. It exerts a peculiar affinity over local debilitated inflammatory conditions, attended with blood dyscrasias. It has its greatest field in adynamic fevers, reducing the pulse and temperature and subduing delirium.
It promotes the flow of saliva in an active manner. The warmth and ting. ling extend down the esophagus to the stomach, but no further unpleasant influence is observed. In a short time diaphoresis is observed, and the continuation of the remedy stimulates the kidneys to increased action. All of the glandular organs seem to feel the stimulating influence, and their functional activity is increased. The stomach is improved in its function, the bowels operate better, and absorption, assimilation, and general nutrition are materially improved. It encourages secretion and excretion, preventing further auto-intoxication, and quickly correcting the influence in the system of any that has occurred. It stimulates retrograde metabolism, or tissue waste, more markedly than any other single remedy known. It influences the entire lymphatic system, and the condition of the blood suggests that the patient has been taking stimulants. Its influence upon the capillary circulation is not comparable with that of any other known remedy, for while it is a stimulant to the circulation in these vessels, it also seems to endow them with a certain amount of recuperative power or formative force by which it is constituted, not only a general stimulant and tonic to the circulation, but also peculiarly so, to local inflammations of a debilitating character, as when administering liver and iron remedies in abundance. Sallow, pallid and dingy conditions of the skin of the face quickly disappear, and the rosy hue of health is apparent. Anemic conditions improve with increased nerve tone. There are but few subjective symptoms from large doses of this agent. It is apparently non-toxic, and to any unpleasant extent non-irritant. The agent certainly has a marked effect upon the nervous system, but its specific influence upon the central organs has not yet been determined.
This agent is markedly anesthetic in its local influence. Applied to open wounds and to painful swellings, while the alcohol may at first induce a burning sensation, this is quickly followed by entire relief from pain in many cases. So marked is this influence that it could well be used for an antiseptic local anesthetic.
I am convinced that success in certain cases depends upon the fact that the patient must have at times, a sufficiently large quantity of this remedy in order to produce full antitoxic effects on the virulent infections. I would therefore emphasize the statement which I have previously made that it is perfectly safe to give echinacea in massive doses—from two drams to half an ounce every two or three hours—for a time at least, when the system is overwhelmed with these toxins. This applies to tetanus, anthrax, actinomycosis, pyemia, diphtheria hydrophobia, and meningitis.
Specific Symptomatology—It is the remedy for blood poisoning, if there is one in the Materia, Medica. Its field covers acute auto-infection, slow progressive blood taint, faults of the blood from imperfect elimination of all possible character, and from the development of disease germs within the blood. It acts equally well, whether the profound influence be exerted upon the nervous system, as in puerperal sepsis, and uremia, or whether there is prostration and exhaustion, as in pernicious malarial and septic fevers, or whether its influence is shown by anemia, glandular ulceration or skin disease.
It is especially indicated where there is a tendency to gangrenous states and sloughing of the soft tissues, throat dark and full, tongue full, with dirty, dark-brown or black coat, in all cases where there are sepsis and zymosis.
It undoubtedly exercises a direct sedative influence over all of the fever processes in typhoid, cerebro-spinal meningitis, malarial fevers, asthenic diphtheria, etc., for while it equalizes the circulation, it also acts as a sedative to abnormal vascular excitement and lowers the temperature, if this be elevated, while if this be subnormal, the singular effect upon the vital forces conspires toward a restoration of the normal condition. As a sedative it is comparable in some respects with baptisia, rhus, and bryonia.
I think this sedative influence is largely exercised through its power to destroy the germs of the infection, thus removing the cause.
Therapy—Echinacea, is par excellence a corrector of any deprivation of the body fluids. It influences those. conditions included under the terms septic, fermentative and zymotic. Those which manifest themselves in a disturbed balance of the fluids, resulting in alterations of the tissues such as are exhibited in boils, carbuncles. abscesses and cellular and glandular inflammations. These same conditions result from the introduction of the venom of serpents and poisonous insects of every character, also from the introduction of disease germs from pus and other putrid and infectious sources.
As an intestinal antiseptic the agent is bound to take first rank with all physicians when once known. Experiments with it to determine its immediate influence upon the fevers caused by continued absorption of septic material, such as typhoid fever, puerperal fever, and the fever of the after-stages of diphtheria, show that its influence upon the pernicious germs begins at once.
In several cases reported, where special sedatives were not given, the temperature has declined from, one-half to two degrees within a few hours after its use was begun, and has not increased until the agent was discontinued.
It has then slowly increased toward the previous high point until the remedy was again taken, when a decline was soon apparent.
It does not produce abrupt drops in the temperature, as often follows the curetting of a septic womb, or as the removal of a quantity of septic material often causes, but it effects an almost immediate stop in germ development, and a steady restoration from its pernicious influence. In the treatment of typhoid fever in the Cook County Hospital, Chicago, it was used in the Eclectic wards for about two years or more, and twenty-one days was the extreme extent of the fever, and the mortality was the lowest known. In many cases taken early, the fever was limited to fourteen days without delirium.
In private practice the reports of many physicians are much more enthusiastic, claiming that when given in the initial stage the fever has disappeared in seven days, and that fourteen days is the extreme limit.
The blood does not become impaired, the assimilation and nutrition are remarkably increased, the nerve force is retained, elimination from all organs is improved, ulceration of Peyer's glands ceases, the enteric symptoms abate, there is but little, if any, tympanites, and there has as yet been no case of hemorrhage or perforation reported as having occurred after the agent was begun. It certainly is a valuable acquisition to typhoid therapeutics. All recent reports confirm these statements.
Its influence in septic fevers is the same as in typhoid. It seems to act as a nerve stimulant upon the vital forces depressed by the poison. This fact was especially true in a case where extreme septic absorption after a badly conducted abortion caused acute nephritis and suppression of the urine. Uremia supervened, with delirium and mild convulsions. Twenty drops of the fluid extract of echinacea were given every two hours continuously. Extreme heat was applied over the kidneys, and a single dose of an antispasmodic was given, the echinacea alone being continued. The fever dropped in two days, the mind cleared, the urinary secretion was restored, and the patient made a rapid and uninterrupted recovery.
It is a most important remedy in uremic poisoning, and will supersede all other single remedies.
It has been in constant use in diphtheria for three years. It is used locally as well as internally. The exudates contract and disappear, the local evidences of septic absorption are gone, the fever declines, the vital forces increase, depression, mental and physical, disappears, and the improvement is continual. In ulcerated sore throat of any character, in ulcerated sore mouth, in stomatitis materni, in post-nasal or catarrhal ulcerations it is prompt and effectual. It is preferred in these cases by those who use it.
In local inflammation of any portion of the intestinal tract, it has given excellent satisfaction. It quickly overcomes local blood stasis, prevents or cures ulceration, and retards pus formation by determining resolution. Reports of its use in appendicitis have been satisfactory, indeed. One writer treated several cases of unmistakable diagnosis, and satisfactory cure resulted. The writer treated one marked case of appendicitis where pus formation and future operation seemed inevitable. The improvement was apparent after the agent had been taken in a few hours, and recovery was complete in twelve days from attack.
Its use in cholera infantum has been satisfactory, especially if nervous phenomena are present. The frequent discharges gradually cease, the patient is soothed and the nerve force increases as the fever abates. Extreme nervous phenomena do not appear.
Webster, of San Francisco, in 1892, suggested the use of echinacea in spinal meningitis. It should be especially valuable if any blood dyscrasia lies at the bottom of the difficulty. Following Webster's suggestions, other physicians, from their personal observations, have been able to ascribe undoubted curative virtues to this agent in this and other convulsive and inflammatory disorders of the brain and cord. It directly antidotes the infection.
As a sedative in cerebro-spinal meningitis, Webster is disposed to believe that it specifically influences the vascular area concerned in the nutrition of the cerebro-spinal meninges.
Since the above was first written the use of echinacea for cerebro-spinal meningitis has been established among those who have been experimenting with the remedy in this disease. There is no doubt whatever that its influence in destroying the virus is specific, and effectual if given in sufficient doses. Five drops is about the ordinary dose for a child, but even this can be increased to twenty in extreme cases. It may be used in conjunction with hexymethylenamine.
At the same time, it must not be forgotten that in all spasmodic diseases, depending upon infection both conditions must be treated together, and gelsemium in full physiologic doses must be given with echinacea.
In the treatment of erysipelas it has given more than ordinary satisfaction, and has established itself permanently in that disorder. It is especially needed when sloughing and tissue disintegration occur, its external influence being most reliable.
In the pain of mammary cancer and in the chronic inflammation of the mammary gland, the result of badly treated puerperal mastitis, where the part has become reddened and congested, the remedy has worked satisfactorily.
In bed sores, fever sores, and in chronic ulcerations it is exceedingly useful. It is diluted and applied directly, while, it is given internally. It is of much value in old tibial ulcers, in chronic glandular indurations, and in scrofulous and syphilitic nodules and other specific skin disorders. The extract or the fluid extract can be combined with an ointment base such as lanolin in the proportion of one part to one, two, or three parts of the base, and freely applied. It can be injected into the sinuses of carbuncles, or into the structure of the diseased parts with only good results.
Logan treated ten cases of stubborn skin disease of undoubted syphilitic origin with this remedy alone. It was applied externally and given in full doses internally, with a satisfactory cure in every case.
In the treatment of syphilis very many observations have been reported. It has been used entirely alone and also in conjunction with alterative syrups, but in no case yet reported has mercury been used with it. The longest time of all cases yet reported, needed to perfect the cure, was nine months.
The writer's observations, in all cases he has treated, are that the patient begins to feel a general improved condition after taking the remedy a few days. Some of them are enthusiastic concerning the sense of well-being they experience. It begins by removing all the sensations of discomfort, and the patient's mind becomes hopeful and encouraged. The specific fever in the first stages soon declines, and there is a permanent abatement of the evidences of the disease. There are absolutely no undesirable. influences observed, and no after effects, and no undesirable side influences to overcome. I have not, however, depended upon this agent alone, in all cases. There are too many definite conditions present to be met with one remedy. I think results are hastened by correct adjustments of three or four other vegetable alteratives with this.
The influences of echinacea are not always enhanced by the use of the iodides. On the other hand, I have had satisfactory results, where the iodides, having previously been given in conjunction with it, were withdrawn, and the echinacea continued alone. The rapid amelioration of the disorders of the skin, after the withdrawal of the iodides, was especially remarked if berberis was substituted for them.
The following most remarkable case occurred in my practice:
A gentleman, aged about forty-five years, in apparently good health, was vaccinated, and as the result of supposed impure virus a most unusual train of the symptoms supervened. His vitality began to wane, and he became so weak that he could not sit up. His hair came out, and a skin disease pronounced by experts to be psoriasis, appeared upon his extremities first, and afterward upon his body. In the writer's opinion, the condition had but little resemblance to psoriasis. It seemed more like an acute development of leprosy than any other known condition.
This advanced rapidly, his nails began to fall off, he lost flesh, and a violent iritis of the left eye developed and ulceration of the cornea in the right set in, and for this difficulty he was referred to Prof. H. M. Martin, President of the Chicago Ophthalmic College.
Dr. Martin gave him ten grains of the iodide of potassium three times daily, and fed him freely upon phospho-albumin. The loss of hair was stopped, but no other favorable results were obtained. The condition progressed rapidly towards an apparently fatal termination. At this juncture, Dr. Martin asked the writer to see the case with him. It looked as if there was no possible salvation for the patient, but as a dernier resort, the writer suggested Echinacea twenty drops every two hours, and the phospho-albumin to be continued. With this treatment, in from four to six weeks, the patient regained his normal weight of more than one hundred and fifty pounds and enjoyed afterward as good health as ever in his life.
Echinacea has been used with great success in aggravated and prolonged cases of rhus poisoning, both locally and internally.
The agent has been long in use among the Indians in the West as a sure cure for snake bite. It has created a furor among the practitioners, who have used it in the bites of poisonous animals, that has made the reports, apparently, too exaggerated to establish credulity on the part of the inexperienced. Cases that seemed hopeless have rapidly improved after the agent was applied and administered. There is at present no abatement in the enthusiasm. One physician controlled the violent symptoms from the bite of a tarantula, and quickly eliminated all trace of the poison with its use.
Dr. Banta of California treated a man bitten by a scorpion, reported in the Eclectic Medical Journal, with echinacea with rapid cure.
In a paper read at the Ohio State Eclectic Medical Society in 1895, Dr. Gregory Smith stated that in 1871 Dr. H. C. F. Meyer commenced the use of this remedy.
He says: "In malarial troubles it has no superior." He also recommends it as a remedy for hemorrhoids; twenty-five drops of the pure tincture injected into the rectum three a day promptly effect a cure. "It is also prompt in stings from. insects and in poisoning by contact with certain plants." As an antidote to the venom of the crotalus horridus it stands without a peer. He gives the history of 613 cases of rattlesnake bite in men and animals, all successfully treated. With the courage of his convictions upon him he injected the venom of the crotalus into the first finger of his left hand; the swelling was rapid and in six hours was up to the elbow. At this time he took a dose of the remedy, bathed the part thoroughly, and laid down to pleasant dreams. On awakening in four hours the pain and swelling were gone.
The fresh root scraped and given freely is the treatment used by the Sioux Indians for snake bite. Recoveries from crotalus poisoning are effected in from two to twelve hours.
By far the most difficult reports to credit are those of the individuals bitten by rabid animals; there are between twenty and thirty reports at the present time. In no case has hydrophobia yet occurred, and this was the only remedy used in many of the cases. In five or six cases, animals bitten at the same time as the patient had developed rabies, and had even conveyed it to other animals, and yet the patient showed no evidence of poisoning, if the remedy was used at once. One case exhibited the developing symptoms of hydrophobia before the agent was begun. They disappeared shortly after treatment. In no case has an opportunity offered to try the remedy after the symptoms were actually developed. One poorly nourished anemic and jaundiced child was badly bitten and the treatment improved the general condition in a marked manner. In the treatment of hydrophobia, a case is reported, which was bitten by a rabid animal out of a litter of six half-grown pups, all of which showed signs of hydrophobia and were killed. A number of parties were bitten by these pups. Two who were bitten died of hydrophobia, three were treated at the Pasteur institute and cured, one was treated with echinacea and cured.
The doctor prescribed teaspoonful doses of echafolta, every three hours. The remedy was introduced on saturated gauze into the wounds, and covered all the injured surfaces. This was secured by a roller bandage. Prior to the administration of the remedy the symptoms of nervous irritation and incipient hydrophobia were strongly marked. These symptoms abated rapidly, and the patient recovered in a satisfactory manner.
A large amount of satisfactory evidence has accumulated confirmatory of our statements concerning the curative action of the remedy in tetanus. Dr. John Herring reported one marked cure. Dr. Lewis reports three cases, where the remedy was injected into the wound after tetanic symptoms had shown themselves. All the tissues surrounding the wound were filled with the remedy by hypodermic injection and gauze saturated with a full strength preparation was kept constantly applied. The agent was also administered in half-dram doses internally, every two or three hours.
Another physician has reported the observation of quite a number of cases, where tetanus had either markedly developed, or was anticipated. The use of the remedy satisfactorily overcame all apparent symptoms where present, and where not present, no tetanic phenomena developed. In the diagnosis of this disease the physician may confuse septic phenomena sometimes with those of developing tetanus, and the cure of the septic conditions may have been taken for a cure of tetanus.
In the treatment of tetanus, I am confident that no antiseptic alone will cover the entire pathology of this disease. There must be a powerful antispasmodic given in conjunction with the germ destroying agent, and vice versa. Echinacea or phenol hypodermically, or both, with gelsemium, lobelia, or veratrum carefully selected and adjusted should meet the indications of all early cases.
These same facts should apply to cases bitten by dogs and wherever convulsions result from infection.
The agent has had a most marvelous influence in overcoming pyemia. We have had some extreme cases reported, where it would seem that the patient was positively beyond all help, where amelioration of the symptoms was pronounced, and the restoration satisfactory.
In the treatment of small-pox conclusive proofs are now furnished us which declare the remedy to be of great efficacy, not only in ameliorating all the phenomena of the disease, but in preventing sequela. When applied to the skin in a form. of a lotion, the pustules are benign in their character, and terminate with a minimum of scar.
In the treatment of erysipelas the remedy has proven itself all we anticipated for it.
Dr. Wilkenloh reports the treatment of at least five cases of goitre, three of which had exophthalmic complications, and all were cured, with this remedy alone. The doctor gave the remedy internally in full doses, and injected from five to fifteen minims directly into the thyroid gland, and kept gauze, saturated and applied externally. As no other remedy than this was used, there could be no doubt about its positive influence.
Applied to painful surfaces, to local acute and painful inflammations of the integument, or to painful wounds, its anaesthetic influence is soon pronounced, and is of great benefit, in preserving freedom from pain during the active healing processes, which are stimulated and encouraged by this remedy. Prof. Farnum is enthusiastic over the action of the remedy in overcoming the odor of cancer, whether in the early stages, or in the latter stage of the development of this serious disease. He advises its persistent administration in all cases where there is a cancerous cachexia, believing that it retards the development of cancer and greatly prolongs the patient's life.
We have already referred to its specific use in the treatment of phlegmenous swellings, old sores, dissecting and surgical wounds, and where there are pus cavities of long standing. Also as a very positive remedy, applied to all cases where gangrene is anticipated, or has appeared.
Its influence in gangrene of the extremities has been very pronounced. In gangrene of the fingers the curative benefits are observable from the first application. It is useful in dermatitis venenata, in erysipelas with sloughing phagedena, and in phlegmasia alba dolens, or phlebitis. In this latter condition its external use will greatly assist the internal medication.
In the treatment of Anthrax, echinacea has proven in a number of cases to be an exceedingly reliable remedy. Dr. Lewis of Canton, Pa., first reported on it in 1907 in Ellingwood's Therapeutist, and Dr. Aylesworth of Collingwood, Canada, confirmed all of his statements, the observations of the two doctors having been made about the same time, each without knowledge of the other. In these cases, very large doses from one to two drams, frequently repeated, are required.
Twenty to forty minims of echinacea every two hours with proper local treatment, such as iodine locally, will cure actinomycosis.
In the treatment of catarrh, it is used internally, and applied locally in the form of a spray, if necessary. It is not only an important remedy in nasal catarrh, but it is important in intestinal catarrh. I used it with excellent advantage in a so-called incurable case of ulcerative colitis with heavy discharge of mucus and pus.
Dr. Fair is emphatic in his statements that patients exposed to diphtheria should take echinacea in from ten to twenty drop doses every two hours with the positive expectation of preventing the disease. If the first symptoms appear as the usual premonitory evidences, the dose should be increased and other indicated remedies will ward off the disease. I have much confidence in this statement and would suggest that it be carried out fully.
The use of echinacea in the treatment of impetigo contagiosa is confirmed. One doctor treated several very severe cases and the rational action of the remedy suggests that its use externally and internally in this disease will prove highly satisfactory.
Another physician whose name is not given treated infection and a purulent discharge from the urethra where there was urinary retention for two days, with this remedy. He passed a catheter as far down as possible, and then combined one part of echinacea with six parts of sterilized water. He forced this slowly against the constriction. Relaxation took place probably from the local anesthetic influence of the remedy in a few minutes. The catheter was withdrawn, and the water passed freely. He repeated the treatment once or twice a day to a complete cure.
Dr. Rounseville reported to the Wisconsin State Medical Society that he had used echinacea with excellent results in both diabetes mellitus, and diabetes insipidus, and also in some forms of albuminuria, and in each of the cases he obtained results that confirmed his opinion that the agent was one that would be a material assistance combined with other measures.
Stubborn diabetic ulcers have been treated by Dr. Thomas Owens very successfully with the internal and external use of echinacea.
Dr. Hewitt used echinacea in alopecia. He made a strong solution and combined with it agents that would assist in stimulating the nutritive functions of the hair follicles. He was well satisfied with the result.
A directly curative influence from this agent alone has been secured, where from vaccination a general infection has been induced. I am confident that no other single medicine will accomplish as much in these cases, immediately and as satisfactorily as this remedy.
Dr. Mill of Clearwater, Neb., obtained the same results from injecting the full strength remedy where there was renal hemorrhage with very painful piles. The curative effect was pronounced. Others agree with him in the treatment of piles with echinacea. I am convinced that it would be good practice to use collinsonia, hamamelis or aesculus in conjunction with this remedy,
Dr. Yates treated an eruptive disease with purulent discharge which we call nettle rash with echinacea internally, and permanganate of potassium solution externally. The results were exceedingly prompt.
Many cases of tibial ulcer treated with echinacea with curative results, are reported. The agent is used both internally and externally, associated often with other successful measures.
Ono doctor had an opportunity to observe the action of echinacea in some fowl that had taken strychnine which was used to poison animals. Those that received the medicine, lived. All those that did not get it, died.
This is simply a suggestion in favor of trying echinacea as an antidote for strychnine poisoning.
The American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy, 1919, was written by Finley Ellingwood, M.D.
It was scanned by Michael Moore for the Southwest School of Botanical Medicine.