Tinospora or Gulancha consists of the dried stem of Tinospora cordifolia, Miers (N.O. Menispermaceae), a climbing shrub indigenous to tropical India. The stems are collected in the hot season and dried. The drug occurs in straight or twisted cylindrical pieces and in slices, averaging about 2 centimetres in diameter, some pieces being much smaller. Externally, they are covered with a thin, papery, brown cork, bearing the raised scars of numerous lenticels. The cork readily exfoliates and discloses a greenish cortex longitudinally wrinkled and marked with lenticels. The fracture is fibrous and the transverse section exhibits a yellowish wood with radially arranged wedge-shaped wood bundles, containing large vessels, separated by narrower medullary rays. The odour is not characteristic, but the taste is bitter.
Constituents.—The chief constituents of the drug are the yellow alkaloid, berberine, and a glucosidal bitter principle; the drug also contains starch.
Action and Uses.—Tinospora is official in India and the Eastern Colonies. It is used as a bitter, similarly to calumba. An infusion concentrated liquor, and tincture of the drug are prepared.
- Infusum Tinosporae, I.C.A.—INFUSION OF TINOSPORA.
- Tinospora, thinly sliced, 10; distilled water, cold, 100. Infuse the drug in the water for thirty minutes, in a covered vessel, and strain. Infusion of tinospora is official in India and the Eastern Colonies. Dose.—15 to 30 mils (1/2 to 1 fluid ounce).
- Liquor Tinosporae Concentratus, I.C.A.—CONCENTRATED SOLUTION OF TINOSPORA.
- Tinospora, in No. 5 powder, 50; alcohol, 22.5; distilled water, sufficient to produce 100. Mix the drug with 50 of the water, macerate for twenty-four hours, press strongly, repeat the operation, mix the expressed liquids, and heat for five minutes at a temperature of 82°; when the liquid is cold add the alcohol, set aside to clear, decant or filter, and add sufficient distilled water to make up to the required volume. Concentrated solution of tinospora is official in India and the Eastern Colonies. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (1/2 to 1 fluid drachm).
- Tinctura Tinosporae, I.C.A.—TINCTURE OF TINOSPORA.
- Tinospora, in No. 20 powder, 20; alcohol (60 per cent.), 100. Macerate for seven days, and complete the maceration process. Tincture of tinospora is official in India and the Eastern Colonies. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (1/2 to 1 fluid drachm).
The British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1911, was published by direction of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.