NaHCO3 = 84.008.
Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3, may be obtained by exposing crystals of sodium carbonate, previously deprived of a portion of their water of crystallisation, to the action of carbon dioxide, or by the interaction of sodium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate. It is also official in the U.S.P. Sodium bicarbonate occurs in the form of a white, odourless, minutely crystalline powder, or in small, opaque, monoclinic crystals; having a saline taste, and a weak alkaline reaction. Aqueous solutions are gradually decomposed at ordinary temperatures into normal carbonate; the decomposition is accelerated by agitation or by warming the solution. The salt should contain riot less than 98.3 per cent. (U.S.P., 99 per cent.) of pure sodium bicarbonate.
Soluble in water (1 in 12); insoluble in alcohol.
Action and Uses.—The action of the carbonates of the alkalies is almost entirely that of the OH ion, that of the metal being negligible (for the action of the Na ion see Sodii Chloridum). They possess a characteristic, soapy, taste in the mouth, where they dissolve mucus and neutralise acid secretions. In the empty stomach they inhibit gastric secretion; in gastric acidity, with pain and distension, great benefit is obtained. When taken for some time alkalies diminish the flow of pancreatic juice, owing to a less acid chyme passing into the duodenum, with a consequent reduction in the amount of pancreatic secretion formed. After absorption the alkali carbonates increase the alkalinity of the tissues, and there is an increased excretion of urine, which is rendered less acid. The carbonates are largely employed in medicine with the object of retaining uric acid in solution in the urinary passages; they are of no value for dissolving uric acid already precipitated, but they form a means of preventing further precipitation. Potassium bicarbonate and lithium carbonate are preferred for this purpose, since the biurates of these metals are more readily soluble in water than sodium biurate. Alkalies are of the greatest value in all cases of acidaemia. Thus, they are given in phosphorus and arsenic poisoning; in the acidaemia of delayed chloroform poisoning, in free doses with the addition of glucose, in the acid intoxication of the later stages of diabetes and in diabetic coma good results have followed the administration of large doses of sodium bicarbonate. Alkalies are also useful for their effect on the bronchial mucous membrane; they appear to render the secretion more alkaline, and so assist in file. solution of tenacious mucus. Sodium bicarbonate closely resembles potassium bicarbonate in its properties, but is absorbed more slowly (see Potassii Bicarbonas). It is best administered in dilute aqueous solution. To relieve the pain and eructation of hyperacidity the dose is given twenty to thirty minutes after a meal. In order to inhibit excessive secretion in the stomach and stimulate the appetite, it is given with bitters thirty minutes before a meal. It is of great value in dyspepsia, and in the bilious vomiting of children. For this purpose the sodium bicarbonate in excess may be given with citric acid, in effervescence. For neutralisation, 20 of sodium bicarbonate require 16.7 of citric acid, or 17.8 of tartaric acid. In gout, rheumatism, and acidity of the urine, small doses are given frequently. Lozenges are prepared for use in dyspepsia. For its action in dissolving mucus, sodium bicarbonate is added to spray solutions and washes for the threat and nose (see Nebula Alkalina Composita and Glycerinum Thymolis Compositum). A weak solution (1 in 150) is applied to the skin to relieve the irritation of urticaria and eczema.
Dose.—1/4 to 2 grammes (5 to 30 grains).
- Aqua Sodae, B.P.C.—SODA WATER.
- Contains 3 grains of sodium bicarbonate, 1 1/2 grains of sodium chloride, 1/2 grain of sodium sulphate in 1 pint of water saturated with carbon dioxide under pressure.
- Balneum Effervescens, B.P.C.—EFFERVESCENT BATH.
- (1) Sodium bicarbonate, 0.3; sodium acid sulphate, 0.15; water, to 100. For a full-sized bath use 140 litres (30 gallons) of water containing 420 grammes (15 ounces) of sodium bicarbonate, and 210 grammes (7 1/2 ounces) of sodium acid sulphate. Or (2) Sodium bicarbonate, 0.3; sodium acid sulphate, 0.15; sodium chloride, 1; calcium chloride, 0.15; water, to 100. For a full-sized bath use 140 litres (30 gallons) of water containing 420 grammes (15 ounces) of sodium bicarbonate, 1400 grammes (50 ounces) of sodium chloride, and 210 grammes (7 1/2 ounces) each of calcium chloride and sodium acid sulphate. These baths are used in the Nauheim treatment of heart disease. Contact between the patient's skin and the sodium acid sulphate should be prevented by placing sheets of lead foil over the salt, and it is also advisable to prevent direct contact of the sulphate with the bath unless it be made of porcelain or coated with a genuine vitreous enamel. Lead foil and enamelled soap-dishes are suitable holders for the sulphate.
- Gargarisma Sodii Bicarbonatis, B.P.C.—SODIUM BICARBONATE GARGLE. 1 in 20.
- Liquor Alkalinus, B.P.C.—ALKALINE SOLUTION. Syn.—Collunarium Alkalinum; Alkaline Nasal Wash.
- Sodium bicarbonate, 1.5; borax, 1.5; phenol, 0.5; refined sugar, 2.5; distilled water, to 100. A variant of Liquor Boracis Compositus. A small quantity is mixed with an equal quantity of warm water and used as a nasal wash.
- Lotio Alkalina, B.P.C.—ALKALINE LOTION.
- Sodium bicarbonate, 1; borax, 1; distilled water, to 100.
- Mistura Carminativa, B.P.C.—CARMINATIVE MIXTURE.
- Each fluid ounce contains 10 grains of sodium bicarbonate, 12 minims of aromatic spirit of ammonia, 24 minims of compound tincture of cardamoms, 36 minims of glycerin, with a sufficient quantity of dill water. This mixture is an aromatic stimulant and carminative, given before meals in bilious dyspepsia with acidity and loss of appetite. Dose.—15 to 30 mils (1/2 to 1 fluid ounce).
- Mistura Sodae Composita, B.P.C.—COMPOUND SODA MIXTURE. Syn.—Peacock's Stomachic Mixture.
- Each fluid ounce contains the active principles of 5 grains of gentian root, 2 grains of rhubarb root, 1 grain of ginger, with 10 grains of sodium bicarbonate and a sufficient quantity of peppermint water. This is a valuable stomachic mixture for seine forms of dyspepsia, and should be given twenty minutes before a meal. Dose.—15 to 30 mils (1/2 to 1 fluid ounce).
- Nebula Alkalina Composita, B.P.C.—COMPOUND ALKALINE SPRAY.
- Sodium bicarbonate, 1.5; borax, 1.5; phenol, 0.75; glycerin, 25; distilled water, to 100. Used for the throat, and for nasal irrigation in catarrh.
- Nebula Antiseptica Alkalina, B.P.C.—ANTISEPTIC ALKALINE SPRAY.
- Sodium bicarbonate, 1; borax, 1; sodium benzoate, 0.04; Sodium salicylate, 0.04; eucalyptol, 0.02; thymol, 0.02; spirit of menthol, 0.2; spirit of gaultheria, 0.2; distilled water, to 100. Used for the throat, and for nasal irrigation in catarrh.
- Pulvis Alkalinus Compositus, B.P.C.—COMPOUND ALKALINE POWDER.
- Sodium bicarbonate, 1; sodium chloride, 1; borax. 1. Used to make a wash for the nose in catarrh, 2 to 4 grammes (30 to 60 grains) being dissolved in 300 mils (10 fluid ounces) of warm water.
- Sodii Citro-tartras Effervescens, B.P.—EFFERVESCENT SODIUM CITRO-TARTRATE.
- Sodium bicarbonate, 51; tartaric acid, 27; citric acid, 18; refined sugar, 15. The product should weigh about 100. Dose.—4 to 8 grammes (60 to 120 grains).
- Tablettae Sodii Bicarbonatis Compositae, B.P.C.—COMPOUND SODIUM BICARBONATE TABLETS. Syn.—Soda Mint Tablets.
- Each tablet contains 5 grains of sodium bicarbonate, 1/8 grain of ammonium carbonate, and 1/8 minim of oil of peppermint. Used as an antacid and carminative in gastric flatulence. Dose.—1 to 4 tablets.
- Trochiscus Sodii Bicarbonatis, B.P.—SODIUM BICARBONATE LOZENGE.
- Each lozenge contains sodium bicarbonate, 3 grains, with rose basis. These lozenges are used as an antacid in dyspepsia and flatulence.
- Trochisci Sodii Bicarbonatis, U.S.P.—TROCHES OF SODIUM BICARBONATE.
- Sodium bicarbonate, 18 grammes; sugar, 51; nutmeg, 1 gramme; mucilage of tragacanth, a sufficient quantity. To make 100 troches.
The British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1911, was published by direction of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.