Podophyllum resin or Podophyllin is prepared by exhausting podophyllum rhizome, in No. 40 powder, by percolation with alcohol, recovering most of the alcohol by distillation, and precipitating the resin from the residual liquid by pouring it, with constant stirring, into ten times its volume of distilled water previously acidified with one twenty-fourth its bulk of hydrochloric acid; the mixture is allowed to stand for twenty-four hours, after which the resin is collected on a filter, washed with distilled water, and dried at a temperature not exceeding 37.7°. Podophyllum resin is also official in the U.S.P. It occurs as a bitter, yellowish or brownish powder. The powder should not yield more than 1 per cent. of ash when incinerated. The resin of Podophyllum peltatum can be distinguished from that of P. Emodi, which may sometimes be supplied for it, by the following test:—to 4 decigrams of the resin in a test-tube add 3 mils of alcohol (60 per cent.) and 5 decimils (0.5 milliliters) of solution of potassium hydroxide, and shake gently. In the case of the Indian resin (P. Emodi) the mixture becomes a semi-solid gelatinous mass in a few seconds. If necessary the mixture may be brought to the boiling-point, when, on cooling, it will be found to have gelatinised. The B.P. resin under this treatment gives a dark fluid showing no signs of gelatinisation even after some days.
Soluble in alcohol and in solution of ammonia; insoluble in water or acids.
Action and Uses.—Podophyllum resin is a drastic but slow acting purgative, in large doses causing acute inflammation of the stomach and intestines with violent peristaltic contractions. It contains the active principles of podophyllum with some inert material. It is employed in some severe cases of habitual constipation; also to remove ankylostoma and other intestinal worms. It is usually administered in pills with extract of henbane or belladonna to prevent griping; it is often combined with nux vomica, aloes, colocynth, or rhubarb. A tincture of podophyllum resin is prepared under the name Tinctura Podophylli; it may be given in mixture form with the tinctures of nux vomica and euonymin, the resin being suspended with a little mucilage of gum acacia, or it may be prescribed with aromatic spirit of ammonia, when the resin is held in solution. Tinctura Podophylli Ammoniata has the advantage of miscibility with water without precipitation. Liquid preparations of podophyllum are, however, acrid and disagreeable.
Dose.—15 to 60 milligrams (1/4 to 1 grain).
- Pilulae Podophylli Belladonnae et Capsici, U.S.P.—PILLS OF PODOPHYLLUM, BELLADONNA, AND CAPSICUM.
- Resin of podophyllum, 1.6 grammes; extract of belladonna leaves, 0.8 gramme; capsicum, in moderately fine powder, 3.2 grammes; sugar of milk, in fine powder, 6.5 grammes; acacia, in fine powder, 1.6 grammes; glycerin and syrup, each a sufficient quantity. To make 100 pills. Average dose.—1 pill.
- Pilulae Podophyllini Compositae, B.P.C.—COMPOUND PODOPHYLLIN PILLS.
- Each pill contains 1 grain of podophyllum resin, 1 grain of mercurous chloride, 1/6 grain of alcoholic extract of belladonna, with tragacanth, milk sugar, and syrup of glucose. Dose.—1 pill.
- Pilulae Podophyllini Belladonnae et Nucis Vomicae, B.P.C.— PODOPHYLLIN, BELLADONNA, AND NUX VOMICA PILLS.
- Each pill contains grain of podophyllum resin, 1/3 grain of alcoholic extract of belladonna, grain of extract of nux vomica, and 1 grain of extract of Barbados aloes. Dose.—1 or 2 Pills.
- Pilulae Podophyllini et Quininae, B.P.C.—PODOPHYLLIN AND QUININE PILLS. Syn.—Poore's Pills.
- Each pill contains grain of podophyllum resin, 1 grain of quinine sulphate, 1/8 grain of alcoholic extract of belladonna, and 1 grain of extract of Socotrine aloes. An excellent dinner pill. Dose.—1 pill.
- Tablettae Podophyllini Compositae, B.P.C.—COMPOUND PODOPHYLLIN TABLETS.
- Each tablet contains 1/4 grain of podophyllum resin, 1 grain of mercurous chloride, and 1 grain of alcoholic extract of belladonna. Dose.—1 or 2 tablets.
- Tinctura Podophylli, B.P.—TINCTURE OF PODOPHYLLUM.
- Podophyllum resin, 3.65; alcohol, sufficient to produce 100. Macerate the resin with 90 of the alcohol for twenty-four hours, with occasional agitation; then filter, and pass sufficient alcohol through the filter to make up to the required volume. Tincture of podophyllum is used as a purgative and cholagogue generally with other purgatives in biliousness and chronic constipation. Mixtures containing this tincture with a mineral acid usually require the addition of one-sixteenth of their bulk of mucilage of gum acacia. Dose.—3 to 10 decimils (0.3 to 1.0 milliliters) (5 to 15 minims).
- Tinctura Podophylli Ammoniata, B.P.C.—AMMONIATED TINCTURE OF PODOPHYLLUM.
- Podophyllum resin, 2; aromatic spirit of ammonia, sufficient to produce 100. This preparation is used in a similar way to Tinctura Podophylli, but is miscible with water without precipitation of the resin. Dose.—6 to 12 decimils (0.3 to 1.2 milliliters) (10 to 20 minims).
The British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1911, was published by direction of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.