Oil of pine is obtained by distillation from the fresh leaves of Pinus Pumilio, Haenke (N.O. Coniferae), chiefly in the Austrian Alps, more especially in the Tyrol. It occurs as a colourless or faintly yellowish liquid, having a pleasant, aromatic odour, and a pungent taste. Specific gravity, 0.865 to 0.870. Optical rotation, -5° to -10°. The oil formerly known as Oleum Pini Sylvestris is not now obtainable. Oil of pine is also known under the trade-names Pinol and Pumiline. An aromatic, brown extract of the fresh leaves of Pinus Pumilio is prepared for use in baths for rheumatism. Oleum Pini Sibiricae (specific gravity, 0.900 to 0.920) is a fragrant, almost colourless oil, obtained from the fresh leaves and twigs of P. sibirica, Turcz. (Abies sibirica, Ledeb). Optical rotation, -30° to -42°. In addition to pinene, camphene, dipentene, and phellandrene, the oil contains from 30 to 40 per cent. of esters, calculated as bornyl acetate.
About 80 per cent. of the oil is soluble in alcohol (1 in 5), the remainder less soluble.
Constituents.—The chief constituents of oil of pine are l-pinene, l-phellandrene, sylvestrene, dipentene, cadinene, and about 5 to 7 per cent. of bornyl acetate. Not more than 10 per cent. of the oil should distil below 165°.
Action and Uses.—Oil of pine has properties closely resembling those of oil of turpentine. It is employed principally, as an inhalation with hot water, for its stimulating and disinfecting action in catarrh of the respiratory passages, and is used in chronic laryngitis and bronchitis. It is also used dissolved in almond oil or liquid paraffin, as a spray. The oil is given internally as a disinfectant and expectorant, administered on sugar, in capsules, or in the form of pastilles. Applied to the skin, pine oil is rubefacient and mildly counter-irritant, and is used similarly to oil of turpentine. It is rubbed over chronic rheumatic joints, which are then covered with cotton wool, or 1 fluid drachm of the oil may be added to a warm bath.
Dose.—1/2 to 3 decimils (0.05 to 0.3 milliliters) (1 to 5 minims).
- Elixir Pini Compositum, B.P.C.—COMPOUND ELIXIR OF PINE.
- Oil of pine, 1.67; terpin hydrate, 1.83; acetomorphine hydrochloride, 0.09; glycerin of saffron, 1.25; alcohol, 30; glycerin, to 100. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (1/2 to 1 fluid drachm).
- Syrupus Pini, B.P.C.—SYRUP OF PINE. 1 in 40.
- Used as a mild pulmonary antiseptic and expectorant in chronic cough. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (1/2 to 1 fluid drachm).
- Vapor Olei Pini, B.P.C.—PINE OIL INHALATION. 1 in 40.
- Quantity sufficient for one inhalation, 4 mils (1 fluid drachm), which is to be placed with 10 fluid ounces of cold water and 10 fluid ounces of boiling water in an apparatus so arranged that the air to be inhaled may pass through the solution. Pine oil inhalation is used as a mild antiseptic in catarrhal affections of the respiratory passages.
- Vapor Olei Pini Sylvestris, B.P., 1885.—Similar to Vapor Olei Pini, B.P.C.
- Vapor Pini et Eucalypti, B.P.C.—PINE AND EUCALYPTUS INHALATION.
- Oil of pine, 1; oil of eucalyptus, 1; compound tincture of benzoin without aloes, 6. About 60 minims of this preparation should be added to 1 pint of boiling water, and the vapour inhaled.
[For other preparations of Oil of Pine see under Acetomorphina.]
The British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1911, was published by direction of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.