Krameria root is obtained from Krameria triandra, Ruiz and Pavon (N.O. Polygaleae), a shrub growing on the mountain slopes of Peru and Bolivia (Peruvian rhatany), or from Krameria argentea, Mart., a plant growing in Brazil (Para rhatany). Krameria, U.S.P., may also be obtained from Krameria Ixina, Linn. (Savanilla krameria). Peruvian rhatany is usually about 3 centimetres or more in diameter, and knotty near the crown, but soon divides into a number of straight, dark reddish-brown, spreading branches, which have a scurfy, or, in the older pieces, rugged and scaly bark. These branches, cut into pieces of suitable length, constitute the bulk of the commercial drug. The fracture is splintery in the wood, but somewhat fibrous in the bark, which is also easily separable. A smoothed, transverse section exhibits a pale reddish wood surrounded by a darker bark, the thickness of the latter being equal to about one-sixth the diameter of the wood. Para rhatany occurs in long, nearly straight, cylindrical pieces, not usually exceeding 12 millimetres in thickness. They are dark purplish-brown in colour, and have a comparatively smooth or longitudinally wrinkled bark, exhibiting deep, transverse cracks, by which Para rhatany may readily be distinguished from Peruvian. The bark, which adheres firmly to the wood, is of a dark reddish-brown colour, and is about equal in thickness to one-half the diameter of the wood. Both varieties are odourless, but the bark has a very astringent taste. The drug yields about 2 per cent. of ash on incineration. Para rhatany was formerly called Savanilla rhatany, but the latter, which is seldom imported into this country, has a paler colour, and its transverse section assumes a violet hue when moistened with solution, of ferrous sulphate, while that of Para rhatany becomes bluish-black, and Peruvian greyish; in other respects Savanilla rhatany resembles the Para variety.
Constituents.—The chief constituent of krameria root is about 8 4 per cent. of krameria-tannic acid, either variety containing about the same proportion. The root also contains a dark red phlobaphene (krameria red), produced by the decomposition of the tannin, together with starch, etc.
Action and Uses.—Krameria root is a powerful astringent, used both externally and internally, and has the general properties of tannic acid; it is, however, less likely to upset the stomach, as it is not so readily absorbed. The powdered root is added to tooth powders for use when the gums are spongy and inflamed. An infusion is used as a gargle for inflamed throats; the tincture may be diluted with 12 parts of water for a similar purpose, and to make a wash for use in inflamed gums or mercurial stomatitis. Extract of krameria is given in pills as an intestinal astringent; it may also be used in the form of suppository, with opium if necessary, for bleeding or prolapsed haemorrhoids. Krameria is much used, with or without cocaine, in the form of a lozenge or pastille for sore throat. As an astringent injection for leucorrhoea or gonorrhoea, Liquor Krameriae Concentratus may be diluted with 40 parts of water. Preparations of krameria are incompatible with salts of iron, the heavy metals, alkalies, and gelatin.
Dose.—1 to 4 grammes (15 to 60 grains).
- Extractum Krameriae, B.P.—EXTRACT OF KRAMERIA. Syn.—Extract of Rhatany.
- Mix krameria root, in coarse powder, with twice its weight of distilled water, and macerate for twenty-four hours; then pack in a percolator, exhaust by percolation with distilled water, and evaporate the percolate to dryness. Extract of krameria is used in the preparation of lozenges and pastilles for its astringent properties, cocaine or menthol being sometimes added. Suppositories of extract of krameria may contain 3 to 5 decigrams (5 to 8 grains) in each. For internal administration, liquid preparations such as the tincture of krameria are preferred. Pills of extract of krameria, which should be massed with syrup of glucose and a little powered liquorice, tend to become insoluble. Dose.—3 to 10 decigrams (5 to 15 grains).
- Extractum Krameriae, U.S.P.
- Similar to B.P. but the percolate is heated to boiling-point and strained, before being evaporated to dryness.
- Extractum Krameriae Liquidum, B.P.C.—LIQUID EXTRACT OF KRAMERIA. Syn.—Liquid Extract of Rhatany. 1 in 1.
- Liquid extract of krameria is liable to gelatinise on keeping, unless prepared by a process similar to that recommended in the case of Tinctura Kino. This extract is a powerful astringent, and is added to tooth washes and gargles or used as a lotion to the gums (1 part to 25 or 30). Dose.—2 to 4 mils (1/2 to 1 fluid drachm).
- Fluidextractum Krameriae, U.S.P.—FLUIDEXTRACT OF KRAMERIA.
- Krameria, in No. 40 powder, 100; alcohol (49 per cent.), sufficient to produce 100. Average dose.—1 mil (15 minims).
- Gargarisma Krameriae, B.P.C.—KRAMERIA GARGLE.
- Tincture of krameria, 2.08; tincture of myrrh, 2.08; compound tincture of lavender, 0.62; glycerin of borax, 8.32; distilled water, to 100.
- Infusum Krameriae, B.P.—INFUSION OF KRAMERIA. Syn.—Infusion of Rhatany.
- Krameria root, bruised, 5; distilled water, boiling, 100. Infuse the drug in the water for fifteen minutes in a covered vessel, and strain. Infusion of krameria is used as an astringent in diarrhoea; also as a gargle in relaxed throats. Dose.—15 to 30 mils (1/2 to 1 fluid ounce).
- Infusum Krameriae Concentratum, B.P.C.—CONCENTRATED INFUSION OF KRAMERIA. Syn.—Concentrated Infusion of Rhatany.
- A product closely resembling infusion of krameria is obtained by diluting 1 part of this preparation with 7 parts of distilled water. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (1/2 to 1 fluid drachm).
- Liquor Krameriae Concentratus, B.P.—CONCENTRATED SOLUTION OF KRAMERIA. Syn.—Concentrated Solution of Rhatany.
- Krameria root, in No. 40 powder, 50; alcohol (20 per cent.), sufficient to produce 100. Moisten the drug with 25 of the alcohol, pack in a closed percolator, and set aside for three days; then percolate with 100 of the alcohol, added in ten equal portions at intervals of twelve hours, and finally with more of the alcohol until the required volume is obtained. This preparation is used as an astringent in the treatment of diarrhoea and inflamed throats. Infusum Krameriae Concentratum is a more satisfactory preparation than the above. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (1/2 to 1 fluid drachm).
- Syrupus Krameriae, U.S.P.—SYRUP OF KRAMERIA.
- Fluidextract of krameria, 45; syrup, to 100. Taken as an astringent, and used, diluted with seven times its volume of water, as a gargle for inflamed throats. Average dose.—4 mils (1 fluid drachm).
- Tinctura Krameriae, B.P.—TINCTURE OF KRAMERIA. Syn.—Tincture of Rhatany.
- Krameria root, in No. 40 powder, 20; alcohol (60 per cent.), sufficient to produce 100. Add 10 of alcohol to the drug, to moisten it, and complete the percolation process. Tincture of krameria is used internally as an astringent, and externally to make a mouth wash or gargle by adding one teaspoonful to a wineglassful of water, for inflamed and spongy gums. It is somewhat weaker in its action than tincture of catechu. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (1/2 to 1 fluid drachm).
- Tinctura Krameriae, U.S.P.—Similar to B.P., but made with alcohol (49 percent.).
- Trochiscus Krameriae, B.P.—KRAMERIA LOZENGE. Syn.—Rhatany Lozenge.
- Each lozenge contains extract of krameria, 1 grain, with a sufficient quantity of fruit basis. Krameria lozenge is used as a local astringent in sore throat and stomatitis.
- Trochisci Krameriae, U.S.P.—TROCHES OF KRAMERIA.
- Extract of krameria, 6 grammes; sugar, 65 grammes; tragacanth, 2 grammes; orange-flower water (undiluted), a sufficient quantity. To make 100 troches.
- Trochisci Krameriae Compressi, B.P.C.—COMPRESSED KRAMERIA LOZENGES. Syn.—Compressed Rhatany Lozenges.
- Each lozenge contains extract of krameria, 1 grain; with a basis of gum acacia, black currant paste of commerce, refined sugar, and theobroma emulsion. The compressed lozenges are used similarly to ordinary krameria lozenges.
- Trochiscus Krameriae et Cocainae, B.P.—KRAMERIA AND COCAINE LOZENGE. Syn.—Rhatany and Cocaine Lozenge.
- Each lozenge contains extract of krameria, 1 grain; cocaine hydrochloride, 1/20 grain; with fruit basis. Krameria and cocaine lozenge is used to relieve cough arising from elongated uvula and relaxed sore throat, the cocaine acting as a local anaesthetic.
The British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1911, was published by direction of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.