BITTER ORANGE PEEL.
Synonym.—Aurantii Amari Cortex.
Bitter orange peel consists of the fresh or dried outer portion of the pericarp of the ripe fruit of Citrus Aurantium, var. Bigaradia, Hook. f. (Citrus vulgaris, Risso) (N.O. Rutaceae). Bitter oranges are cultivated chiefly in the South of Spain (Seville oranges) and in Sicily (Palermo); the fruits are collected before they are quite ripe, the ripening being completed on the voyage to this country. The fresh fruit is distinguished from the sweet orange by its deeper orange-red colour, more rugged surface, bitter peel and sour pulp. For medicinal use the peel should be removed with as little as possible of the white "zest" adhering, but at the same time care should be taken to avoid unnecessarily rupturing the oil-glands, which are situated in considerable number just below the epidermis of the fruit, since these contain the volatile oil to which the aroma of the peel is due. Fresh bitter orange peel (Aurantii Cortex Recens, B.P.) is best obtained during February and March, as the Spanish fruit is not usually imported until the end of January. The peel is deep orange-red in colour, with a rough and glandular outer surface. It has an agreeable aromatic odour and bitter taste, due to the presence of a volatile oil and a bitter principle. The dried peel yields from 3.5 to 6.5 per cent. of ash. Dried bitter orange peel (Aurantii Cortex Siccatus, B.P., Aurantii Amari Cortex, U.S.P.) is imported chiefly from Malta, usually in narrow, machine-cut strips (gelatin cut), but owing to the excessive rupturing of the oil glands it is not equal in aroma to hand-cut English-dried peel. Larger pieces (quarters) are sometimes seen in commerce, but these have much of the white "zest" attached to them. The transverse section moistened with hydrochloric acid assumes a dark green colour, a reaction which is sometimes useful in identifying the drug.
Constituents.—The chief constituents of orange peel are the volatile oil and an amorphous, glucosidal, bitter principle named aurantiamarin. Other constituents are hesperidin, a colourless, tasteless, crystalline glucoside, which occurs chiefly in the white "zest" of the peel, isohesperidin, hesperic acid, a bitter resin, and aurantiamaric acid.
Action and Uses.—Orange peel is used in many pharmacopoeial preparations as a flavouring agent, and for its bitter stomachic and carminative properties. Its preparations produce a dark colour with ferric chloride.
- Elixir Aurantii Compositum, B.P.C.—COMPOUND ELIXIR OF ORANGE.
- Tincture of orange, 10; tincture of lemon, 2.5; orange-flower water, undiluted, 10; alcohol, 15; syrup, 40; distilled water to 100. Used as a flavouring agent, 1 part by volume being sufficient to flavour 20 to 30 parts of mixture. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (1/2 to 1 fluid drachm).
- Elixir Simplex, B.P.C.—SIMPLE ELIXIR.
- Tincture of orange, 7.5; syrup, 40; distilled water, to 100.
- Fluidextractum Aurantii Amari, U.S.P.—FLUIDEXTRACT OF BITTER ORANGE PEEL.
- Dried bitter orange peel, in No. 40 powder, 100; alcohol (63 per cent.), sufficient to produce 100. Average dose.—1 mil (:15 minims).
- Infusum Aurantii, B.P.—INFUSION OF ORANGE PEEL.
- Dried bitter orange peel, cut small, 5; distilled water, boiling, 100. Infusion off orange peel is a pleasant vehicle for bitter tonics. Dose.—15 to 30 mils (1/2 to 1 fluid ounce).
- Infusum Aurantii Compositum, B.P.—COMPOUND INFUSION OF ORANGE PEEL.
- Dried bitter orange peel, cut small, 2.5; fresh lemon peel, cut small, 1.25; cloves, bruised, 0.625; distilled water, boiling, 100. This infusion forms an excellent vehicle for bismuth mixtures. The addition of mucilage to such mixtures is not necessary. Dose.—15 to 30 mils (1/2 to 1 fluid ounce).
- Infusum Aurantii Compositum, Concentratum, B.P.C.—CONCENTRATED COMPOUND INFUSION OF ORANGE PEEL.
- A product closely resembling compound infusion of orange peel is obtained by diluting 1 part of this preparation with 7 parts of distilled water. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (1/2 to 1 fluid drachm).
- Infusum Aurantii Concentratum, B.P.C.—CONCENTRATED INFUSION OF ORANGE PEEL.
- A product closely resembling infusion of orange peel is obtained by diluting 1 part of this preparation with 7 parts of distilled water. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (1/2 to 1 fluid drachm).
- Syrupus Aromaticus, B.P.—AROMATIC SYRUP.
- Tincture of orange, 1; cinnamon water, 1 syrup, 2. Aromatic syrup is used as a flavouring agent. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (1/2 to 1 fluid drachm).
- Syrupus Aurantii B.P.—SYRUP OF ORANGE.
- Tincture of orange, 1; syrup, 7. Syrup of orange is used as a flavouring agent. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (1/2 to 1 fluid drachm).
- Tinctura Aurantii B.P.—TINCTURE OF ORANGE.
- Fresh bitter orange peel, cut small, 1; alcohol, 4. Tincture of orange is used as a bitter, and as a flavouring agent. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (1/2 to 1 fluid drachm).
- Tinctura Aurantii B.P., 1885.—TINCTURE OF ORANGE, B.P., 1885.
- Dried bitter orange peel, cut small and bruised, 10; proof spirit, sufficient to produce 100.
- Tinctura Aurantii Amari, U.S.P.—TINCTURE OF BITTER ORANGE PEEL.
- Dried bitter orange peel, in No. 40 powder, 20; alcohol (57 per cent.), sufficient to produce 100. Average dose.—4 mils (1 fluid drachm).
- Vinum Aurantii Detannatum, B.P.C.—DETANNATED ORANGE WINE.
- Orange wine from which the tannin has been removed with gelatin. Used in the preparation of medicinal wines containing alkaloids and other substances incompatible with tannin.
AURANTII CORTEX INDICUS, I.C.A.
INDIAN ORANGE PEEL.
Indian orange peel consists of the fresh or dried outer portion of the pericarp of varieties of Citrus Aurantium (N.O. Rutaceae), grown in India and Ceylon. This variety of orange peel should possess the pleasant odour and bitter taste characteristic of bitter orange peel from Citrus Aurantium, var. Bigaradia, and should have very little of the white inner portion of the pericarp adhering to it.
Uses.—Indian orange peel is sanctioned for use in India and the Eastern Colonies in making official preparations for which fresh or dried bitter orange peel is directed to be used.
Orange-flower water (Aqua Naphae; Aqua Aurantii Florum Fortior, U.S.P.; Stronger Orange-flower Water) is obtained by distilling the flowers of Citrus Aurantium, var. Bigaradia, Hook. f. (N.O. Rutaceae), with water. It should be diluted with twice its volume of distilled water immediately before use, unless otherwise specified. Aqua Aurantii Florum, U.S.P., is prepared by mixing equal volumes of stronger orange-flower water and distilled water. Orange-flower water occurs as a colourless or slightly greenish yellow liquid, with a very fragrant odour. The water should be free from lead.
Action and Uses.—Orange-flower water is used as a flavouring agent, as in Mistura Olei Ricini and Syrupus Calcii Lactophosphatis; it is also used as a vehicle for lotions.
- Spiritus Coloniensis, B.P.C.—COLOGNE SPIRIT. Syn.—Aqua Coloniensis; Eau de Cologne.
- Oil of bergamot, 1.25; oil of lemon, 0.50; oil of neroli, 0.20; Oil of rosemary, 0.15; oil of thyme, 0.05; orange-flower water, undiluted, 4.50; alcohol, to 100.
- Syrupus Aurantii Floris, B.P.—SYRUP OF ORANGE FLOWER.
- Orange-flower water, undiluted, 10; refined sugar, 60; distilled water, by weight, to go. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (1/2 to 1 fluid drachm).
- Syrupus Aurantii Florum, U.S.P.—SYRUP OF ORANGE FLOWERS.
- Sugar, 85; orange-flower water, to 100.
The British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1911, was published by direction of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.