Ground mustard or mustard flour consists of the dried, ripe seeds of Brassica sinapioides, Roth., and Brassica alba, Boiss. (N.O. Cruciferae), powdered and mixed. It occurs as a greenish-yellow, odourless powder, with a bitter, pungent taste, and gives off a pungent odour when moistened. It should be free from starch and turmeric.
Action and Uses.—Mustard causes redness and a feeling of warmth when applied to the skin or mucous membrane.; if tire, action be prolonged vesication is produced. It is employed externally as a counter-irritant either in the form of poultice or as mustard paper (see Cataplasma and Charta Sinapis). Mustard baths for the feet are used in sleeplessness, and in incipient colds; and a mustard sitz-bath is employed in amenorrhoea (1 tablespoonful to each gallon of water). Internally, mustard is used as a condiment; it increases the flow of saliva and improves the appetite. Mixed with hot water (1 tablespoonful to a tumblerful) it is a prompt emetic, and is used especially in narcotic poisoning. Powdered mustard should not be mixed with boiling water, or the pungent, volatile oil will be developed only to a limited extent, owing to the destructive action of excessive heat on myrosin.
- Balneum Sinapis, B.P.C.—MUSTARD BATH. 1 to 400.
- If used for a child, give the bath until the arms of the person holding the child begin to tingle. Used in chills and febrile conditions.
- Cataplasma Sinapis, B.P.C.—MUSTARD POULTICE.
- Crushed linseed, 28; mustard, 2; water, to 100. Employed as a counterirritant in deep-seated inflammations, such as pleurisy, and bronchitis. The mustard paste may be spread on the surface of the linseed poultice if stronger action be desired.
SINAPIS ALBAE SEMINA, B.P.
WHITE MUSTARD SEEDS.
White mustard seeds are obtained from Brassica alba, Boiss. (N.O. Cruciferae), an annual herb, largely cultivated in temperate climates. They are also official in the U.S.P. The dried ripe seeds are yellow in colour, minutely pitted and nearly spherical, about 2 millimetres in diameter. Internally, they are yellow and oily, a transverse section showing two folded cotyledons embracing a small radicle. When soaked in water they become coated with mucilage. Odour, slight; taste, pungent, but the crushed seeds moistened with water exhale no pungent odour. The powdered seeds, after removal of the fixed oil by ether-alcohol, exhibit under the microscope the following characteristic cells and tissues:—Fragments of the sclerenchymatous layer appear in surface view as groups of small, yellow, strongly thickened, polygonal cells; epidermis, consisting of large, polygonal, thin-walled cells filled with colourless striated mucilage; hypodermis of large polygonal cells with moderately thick walls and intercellular spaces; cotyledons and radicle composed of small thin-walled cells containing minute, irregular, aleurone grains in which are a few, very minute globoids. Starch is either entirely absent or present only in the form of isolated groups of minute rounded grains derived from the occasional presence of an unripe seed. Oil incineration, the seeds yield front 4 to 5 per cent. of ash.
Constituents.—The seeds contain a crystalline glucoside, sinalbin, together with an enzyme, myrosin. The latter in the presence of water hydrolyses the sinalbin, producing acrinyl isothiocyanate, sinapine and sulphate, and dextrose. Acrinyl isothiocyanate is a yellow oily liquid with pungent taste and powerful, rubefacient action, but is it is not volatile it has no pungent odour. Sinapine is an alkaloid, but is. so unstable that it has not yet been isolated. White mustard seeds contain in addition fixed oil (about 30 per cent.), proteins (about 25 per cent.), and mucilage.
Uses.—White mustard seeds are used for the extraction of the fixed oil, and are mixed with black mustard seeds, in powder, for use as "round mustard" (see Sinapis).
- Charta Sinapis, B.P.—MUSTARD PLASTER.
- Black mustard seeds, 50; white mustard seeds, 50; benzol, a sufficient quantity; solution of indiarubber, a sufficient quantity. Remove the fixed oil from the bruised seeds by percolation with benzol, dry the residue by exposure to warm air, and reduce it to No. 60 powder. Mix 5 grammes (75 grains) of this with 18 mils (5 fluid drachms) of solution of indiarubber, spread the mixture with a suitable brush over about 2 square decimetres (30 square inches) of one side of a piece of cartridge paper, and dry by exposure to air. A mixture of white and black mustard seed, gives the best result, as the former contain an excess of ferment and the latter of glucoside. Mustard paper is used as a counter-irritant in lumbago, congestion of the lung, pneumonia bronchitis, phthisis, and wherever counter-irritation is indicated. Small pieces of suitable size and shape may be applied to the temple or behind the ear, and fixed in position by a strip of adhesive plaster. Mustard paper should be dipped in tepid water for about fifteen seconds before being applied. "Half-strength" mustard papers are prepared, or one or two layers of damped muslin may be placed next the skin, if the full-strength papers cause 100 much pain and irritation.
SINAPIS NIGRAE SEMINA, B.P.
BLACK MUSTARD SEEDS.
Black mustard seeds are obtained from Brassica sinapioides, Roth. (N.O. Cruciferae), an annual herbaceous plant, largely cultivated in temperate climates. They are also official in the U.S.P. The dried, ripe seeds are minute, about 1 millimetre in diameter, nearly dark or greyish-brown in colour. Outer surface distinctly pitted, internally yellowish and oily, the section exhibiting two folded cotyledons embracing a small radicle. When soaked in water the seeds become surrounded by mucilage. The entire seeds are odourless; when powdered they have a slight, characteristic odour, but when the powder is moistened the odour becomes strong and pungent, attacking the mucous membrane of both eyes and nostrils. Taste, at first bitter, but rapidly becoming pungent. The powdered seeds exhibit under the microscope characters similar to those described for white mustard, but differing chiefly in the following particulars:—The fragments of the sclerenchymatous layer are dark yellowish-brown in colour, and exhibit distinct, large, dark reticulations; the cells of the hypodermis have thinner walls; the mucilage in the epidermal cells exhibits no striations. On incineration, black mustard seeds yield front 4.2 to 5.7 per cent. of ash.
Constituents.—The seeds contain a crystalline glucoside, sinigrin (potassium myronate), and an enzyme, myrosin. In the presence of water these bodies give rise to allyl isothiocyanate, potassium acid sulphate, and dextrose. Allyl isothiocyanate (essential oil of mustard) is a mobile, volatile liquid, with an extremely pungent odour and taste. The drug yields from 0.7 to 1.3 per cent. of this volatile oil, Dutch seed being the best. In the oil, allyl isothiocyanate is generally accompanied by other bodies, such as allyl cyanide. Black mustard seeds also contain fixed oil (about 27 per cent.), proteins (about 29 per cent.), and mucilage.
Uses.—Black mustard seeds are used in the preparation of the volatile and fixed oils, and mixed with white mustard seeds, as "ground mustard." "Mustard bran" consists of the integuments of white and black mustard seeds. It has properties similar to those of ground mustard, but is much weaker in its action.
The British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1911, was published by direction of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.