(Alkaloids, Resins, Oleo-Resins and Resinoids.)
(From Lloyd Brothers' Prices Current, Cincinnati, 1909.)
Notwithstanding the aforenamed remarkable record, some of the concentrations are still used in considerable amounts in legitimate therapy, as well as by private formula compounders. Many physicians employ established formulas containing them, while others use them singly or in favorite prescriptions, as occasion suggests. Old works on therapeutics carry them in many compounds still desired by some physicians who read after the old authors, whilst the makers of pills and tablets for home cure of disease, proprietary medicine makers of popular cathartics, etc., etc., employ such substances as podophyllin in immense amounts. Probably no substance, not excepting jalap, is more vital to the makers of cathartic proprietaries than is "Podophyllin." For this reason manufacturers of such plant preparations continue supplying the "Concentrations" to such physicians and mixers of medicines as yet employ them. The aforenamed explanations, and the statements that follow, especially the brief notes after the two lists offered are sufficient to introduce and permit of intelligent comment on the items in the prices current. Especially do we commend to the reader's attention the remarks and the notes that follow the lists (selected because they are of recent revision), which are essential to the historical completeness of this Bulletin.
Table of Concentrations. (With Notes.)
Including "Resinoids," Alkaloids, Alkaloidal Salts, etc.
(For explanation of reference letters A, B, C, etc., see NOTES)
|Price per ounce.
|Price per ounce.
|(from Aletris farinosa)||(from Prunus virginiana)|
|(from Alnus serrulata)||(from Chelone glabra)|
|(from Ampelopsis quinqueolia)||(from Chimaphila corymbosa)|
|(from Apocynum cannabinum)||(from Chionanthus virginicus)|
|(from Asclepias tuberosa)||(from Cimicifuga racemosa)|
|(from Baptisia tinctoria)||(from Collinsonia canadensis)|
|(from Barosma crenata)||(from Citrullus colocynthis)|
|(from Betula alba)||(from Cornus florida)|
|(from Caulophyllum thalictroides)||(from Corydalis formosa)|
|(from Cypripedium pubescens)||(from Leptandra virginica)|
|(from Dioscorea villosa)||(from Liatris spicata)|
|(from Euonymus atropurpureus)||(from Liriodendron tulipifera)|
|(from Euonymus atropurpureus)||(from Lobelia inflata)
(not the alkaloid Lobeline)
|(from Euonymus atropurpureus)||(from Lycopus virginicus)|
|(from Euphorbia corollata)||(from Cimicifuga racemosa)|
|(from Eupatorium purpureum)||(from Menispermum canadense)|
|(from Eryngium aquaticum)||(from Myrica acris)|
|(from Frasera walteri)||(from Phytolacca decandra)|
|(from Gelsemium sempervirens)||(from Podophyllum peltatum)|
|(from Geranium maculatum)||(from Podophyllum peltatum)|
|(from Gossypium herbaceum)||(from Populus tremuloides)|
|(from Hamamelis virginiana)||(from Prunus virginiana)|
|(from Helonias dioica)||(from Ptelea trifoliata)|
|(from Humulus lupulus)||(from Rheum officinalis)|
|Yellow Alkaloid||(from Rhus glabra)|
|Citrate||(from Rumex crispus)|
|Hydrastine (Berberine)||D,||5.00||Sanguinarine Nitrate||I,||3.00|
|Hydrastine (Berberine)||D,||6.00||Sanguinarine Sulphate||I,||3.00|
(from Sanguinaria canadensis)
|Hydrastine (Berberine)||D,||7.00||(from Scutellaria lateriflora)|
|Hydrastine (Berberine)||D,||5.00||(from Senecio aureus)|
|Hydrastine, Principles||Combined DA,||2.50||(from Smilax officinalis)|
|(from Hydrastis Canadensis)||Stillingin||A,||1.00|
|Inulin||E,||0.80||(from Stillingia sylvatica)|
|(from Inula helenium)||Taraxin||A,||1.00|
|(from Iris versicolor)||Trillin||A,||0.60|
|Jalapin (Resin of jalap),||F,||0.90||(from Trillium erectum)|
|(from Ipomoea jalapa)||Viburnin||A,||1.00|
|Juglandin||A,||0.60||(from Viburnum opulus)|
|(from Juglans cinerea)|
|(from Xanthoxylum fraxineum)|
Remarks and Notes.
Alkaloids.—Only five North American plants established in therapy yield alkaloids in any considerable amount, viz.: Sanguinaria, Hydrastis, Gelsemium, Veratrum, and Lobelia. 41 Of these the alkaloids of two only, the old Eclectic Sanguinaria and Hydrastis, have ever been much valued in medicine, and these it is now known but imperfectly represent the drugs yielding them. 42 All the American alkaloids now employed to any extent were introduced into Eclecticism the first half of the nineteenth century. 43 To the early uses of these old alkaloidal salts nothing of importance has been added in therapeutical directions, as can be seen by a study of the past record, and contrasting it with the commended uses of the present.
42 About 1885 Dr. Roberts Bartholow investigated lobeline (as made by us), physiologically and therapeutically. It failed to equal the hopes and expectations of physicians employing lobelia, and naturally came into neglect. See Drugs and Medicines of North America, 1885, Vol. II, pages 89-91.
43 The white alkaloid hydrastine may be excluded. It has no place in Eclectic therapy, and is perhaps the most objectionable constituent of the drug. It is a poison (see Bartholow's physiological investigations, Drugs and Medicines of North America 1885, and Bulletin of Lloyd Library, No. 10, pages 156-161), and for that reason perhaps is taken as a standard of excellence by some physiologists. Hydrastine appeals to heroic medicationists, and in the United States Pharmacopeia is taken as the standard of excellence. However, the most popular (with physicians) of all preparations of hydrastis (Lloyd's Hydrastis) has contained for over a decade only a very small amount of this alkaloid, and is to be preferred (as shown by experienced investigation) if it contain none at all.
Nomenclature.—We terminate the name of the alkaloids only with the syllable ine, applying the termination in to such indifferent substances as resins, glucosids, etc. We thus differentiate the alkaloids of the list from the members of other classes, and designate them so plainly that no confusion concerning their scientific nomenclature can exist in the mind of an intelligent reader. Let it be therefore understood that substances in the preceding list that do not in name terminate with the syllable ine are not alkaloids.
Resins.—(Listed B, F, and G.) Of the legitimate drug resins, three only—resins of macrotys, jalap, and podophyllum—are of enough importance to merit an established position in therapy. The semi-resinous products (oleo-resins, akin to oils rather than resins) of such drugs as aletris and iris have long passed into disuse, in favor of more eligible and more representative liquid products of the drugs yielding them. Scammony has never been in the Eclectic list. We terminate the names of the resins and other indifferent substances with the syllable in.
Oleo-Resins.—In the day of the popularity of the "resinoids" it was discovered that a few substances, more or less related, partook of the nature of oils and refused to dry. An attempt was largely made to classify these and distinguish them by the affix din, and to supply them in liquid form. Thus, in old Prices Current and lists of Concentrations will be found such names as Iridin, Pteledin, Asclepidin, and a few others. This nomenclature did not, however, prevail. These oleo-resins were never popular, and soon dropped from sight. They are, however, included in our list, and are therein properly designated as Oleo-resins.
Unclassified Concentrations.—(Marked A in the list.) Such terms as apocynin, gossypin, caulophyllin, cypripedin, phytolaccin, scutellarin, euonymin, ergotin, etc., etc., comprise the majority of items that have no position in any scheme of scientific chemical classification. They are neither alkaloids, glucosids, resins, acids, nor anything else definite, and we contend now, as heretofore, that (regardless of therapeutic values) it is a misnomer to apply to such substances a systematic name carrying an established, scientific termination. Such preparations as these, notwithstanding the protest of the Eclectic authorities, were, however, introduced as "Concentrations" in the early history of American medicine, and were, as previously stated, included among the "Eclectic Alkaloids, Resins, and Resinoids." Their names, made of the respective plant titles, were terminated with in.
It does not necessarily follow, however, that such substances as these are altogether useless in therapy or innocent in action. Many of the incongruous preparations associated under the foregoing titles carry more or less of the drug qualities of the plants from which they are made, whilst some that stand without the semblance of a scientific formula are very energetic. In this connection we will add that a dried extract of nux vomica or of hyoscyamus does not lose its power to kill by reason of the fact that it is mislabeled. Nor does such a substance as the old Eclectic "Concentration" colocynthin, that has no scientific home or rational name, by reason of its faulty title fail to act as an active physic. On the other hand, a material capable of a definite formula may be of no significance whatever, therapeutically. Genistic acid, from gentian, while properly named, is of no known use, nor has crystalline xanthoxylin any established value.
With these remarks we introduce the following explanatory notes:
A. Products thus marked are not definite compounds, nor do they accord with or permit of any scientific chemical nomenclature. They were introduced in the early days of American medicine, and were originally known as "Eclectic Resinoids," but were never advocated by such Eclectic authorities as King and Scudder. They more properly belong with the "Powdered Extracts," but each item must necessarily be made by processes peculiar to itself.
B. This, known under the two names, "Cimicifugin" and "Macrotin," is a dried, resinous precipitate (not a true resin), from Macrotys (Cimicifuga). It was discovered by Dr. John King about 1835, and introduced by him into general medicine about 1845. It is possessed of energetic qualities and needs to be carefully administered. Overdoses produce violent headaches.
C. This is a precipitate from a strong alcoholic extract of Euonymus (Wahoo), by means of sodium carbonate and alum solutions. It carries an excess of alumina, as do the other "Green Resinoids," when made by this (the original) process. In 1885 it came into English use, by reason of the reports of Dr. Richardson, of London.
D. These are alkaloidal salts of the yellow alkaloid of Hydrastis, known to physicians of the present day both as Hydrastine and as Berberine. This very widely disseminated alkaloid was introduced into Eclecticism and established under the proper and rational name Hydrastine, long before the name Berberine was applied to it in any medical print. We therefore continue to recognize the name Hydrastine, primarily, in our lists and on our label, because it is, historically as well as by priority, the proper name, as well as because it is still the title used by the majority of physicians employing compounds of this yellow alkaloid. (See Lloyd Brothers' Drug Treatise No. XXIII, page 9.)
DA. The substance known for over fifty years as "Hydrastine Principles Combined," was the first "resinoid" of this drug. It carries much foreign material, such as the acrid resin and other peculiar proximate principles of Hydrastis canadensis. The name originated when the term "resin" was all potent. This preparation is generally used when simply "Yellow Hydrastine" is prescribed, and has been sent by us to our patrons for many decades when simply "Hydrastine," or "Hydrastine P. C." is ordered.
As a remedy for internal administration, where it is not necessary to employ a solution, we consider the "Principles Combined" as preferable to any single alkaloidal salt of the drug, mainly because in the experience of physicians in whose judgment we confide it is a better representative of the desirable constituents of Hydrastis than is any single drug product of this plant, and because it carries but little of the poisonous white alkaloid.
We consider the white alkaloid, ("Hydrastine," so-called), too violent to dominate any Hydrastis preparation, and for this reason we exclude it, largely, from our "Principles Combined." We consider it harmful, if in excess, in any established field of Hydrastis therapy, and we believe it should be totally excluded from all preparations intended as soothing applications, or as tonics in disturbances of the stomach.
F. Resin of jalap, in the early days of the Eclectic Alkaloidal-Resinoidal-Concentration excitement, was called Jalapin. The name is perhaps subject to criticism, but for obvious reasons, it is retained in our list.
G. The genuine, dark-colored Resin of Podophyllum, now official in the Pharmacopoeia of the United States, is the same as that made in 1835 by its discoverer, Professor John King, M. D., and named by him, "Resin of Podophyllum." It was also the first of the line afterwards known as "Resinoids." The reputation of "Podophyllin," the commercial name of the drug, was established on the use of this article.
H. "Podophyllin" of a yellow color is an alum lake, produced by means of alum or other chemicals. For apparent reasons, (commercial), that need not be stated, it once dominated the "Podophyllin" drug trade of America. Yellow Podophyllin is uncertain in its action, and is very griping. We neither make it, nor supply it. (See Lloyd Library Bulletin No. XII.)
I. These alkaloidal salts of Sanguinaria carry in acid combination the impure (mixed) alkaloids of the drug, for the root of Sanguinaria canadensis contains two or more alkaloids that are closely related to each other and have been used in natural association from the date of their introduction. These alkaloids are white, but with acids they form very acrid salts, all of which have a red color. They should be used cautiously.
J. The preparation used under the name "Sanguinarine Principles Combined" is a complicated form of the alkaloid, being a precipitated mixture of crude, alkaloidal compounds, resins, and other products of Sanguinaria. It is a powder having a buff or bluish-gray color, which changes to red when moistened with a sour acid. The Sanguinaria alkaloids and all their salts are exceedingly irritating to mucous membranes, and the inhalations of their dust are to be avoided as much as possible.
K. The bark of Xanthoxylum (Zanthoxylum americanum) contains a white crystalline glucosid of no ascertained medicinal value. The old-style "concentration" furnished under the name "Xanthoxylin" has been employed by physicians of repute for over half a century. It contains other principles of the bark, together with the aforenamed glucosid, Xanthoxylum, which, in our opinion, as already stated, is not of importance.
Oleo-resins and Oils by Ether.
These preparations are intimately connected with the concentrations, as also were the persons concerned in their introduction and manufacture.
Professor John King was a fluent French scholar. He read all the French publications, and kept up everything in the line of French pharmacy and chemistry. Naturally, therefore, he caught the advancement that was being made in France in these directions, and be it known, France, in the beginning of the last century, seemed to take the lead. Consequently, when King became interested in progressive medicine, his knowledge in these directions was most useful to him, and after he stumbled on to resin of podophyllum, in 1835, he turned his attention to pharmaceutical manipulation, on both a small and a large scale, but he did not offer any products therefrom in commerce, utilizing them in his own practice. He discovered oleo-resin of iris very soon after he discovered the resin of phodophyllum, and the resin of cimicifuga, these three drugs being for a long time three of King's favorite remedies. (See preceding history.)
Then, about 1845, when the Eclectic craze for resins, or rather resinoids, was taking their care, King became associated in Cincinnati with the Eclectic Medical Institute, and threw the influence of his opportunities and knowledge into the Eclectic field.
About that time, (1846), after the Eclectic oleo-resins had been introduced, Professor Proctor translated from the Pratique des Chimie for the American Journal of Pharmacy an article on "Ether Extraction in the Making of Oleo-Resinous Extract of Cubebs," and in 1849 read a paper before the American Pharmaceutical Association, on the "Etherial Oleo-Resins." This was their first practical introduction to the American profession outside of Eclecticism.
The Eclectic oleo-resins and vegetable oils had, at that date, however, been well established in the practice of the Eclectic physicians, and there was an increasing demand for them, in connection with the concentrations, previously described in our publication. In 1859 Professor Proctor further reported to the American Pharmaceutical Association "Formulae for Fluid Extracts," among which he included ten oleo-resins, and upon these were based the line of oleo-resins introduced into the Pharmacopoeia of the United States in 1863. The record may be summarized as follows:
The Pharmacopoeia of 1850, appearing in 1853, included among the Fluid Extracts two oleo-resins, capsicum and black pepper, neither of which were then used in Eclectic medicine. In 1863, the Pharmacopoeia introduced other oleo-resins, some of which had been employed in Eclectic medicine for at least two decades. Excepting these, and the oleo-resin of male fern, none of these Pharmacopoeial oleo-resins came into general use.
This brief summary will introduce the plant preparations known as the Eclectic Medicinal Oils, Oils by Ether, 44 and Oleo-Resins, concerning which the prices current of Lloyd Brothers gives the most copious notes and comments. From it we reproduce as follows:
44 Oils by Ether are made by extracting drugs by means of Sulphuric Ether, which, by evaporation, leaves a fixed oil and other ether-soluble products. An Ethereal Oil is a volatile or essential oil, obtained usually by distillation.
"They are complicated and often very concentrated solutions of energetic principles of the plants yielding them, but are not distillates, such as are the Essential Oils. A few, such as Oil of Lobelia, Oil of Stillingia, and Stillingia Liniment (which we include in the list), are very popular, and justly so, because they are very useful and have been long established as remedial agents. Others, such as Iridin and Pteledin (marked A), are obsolete Eclectic oleo-resins made after the method of preparing Resin of Podophyllum. They are mixtures of vegetable oils, resins, chlorophyl, and dissolved substances, the oleo-resins predominating. Oil of Male Fern, a European preparation akin to the oleo-resins, is included in the list, as is also the invaluable old, standard, Stillingia Liniment.
Table of Oleo-resins and Oils by Ether. With Notes.
|Aletredin (Oleo-Resin)||A,||$0.75||Oil Capsicum||B,||$0.60|
|(from Aletris farinosa)||(from Capsicum annum)|
|Asclepedin (Oleo-Resin)||A,||0.75||Oil Lobelia||C,||0.90|
|(from Asclepias tuberosa)||(from Lobelia inflata)|
|Eupurpurin (Oleo-Resin)||A,||0.75||Oil Male Fern||0.22|
|(from Eupatorium purpureum)||(from Male Fern, Dryopteris filix-mas)|
|Heledin (Oleo-Resin)||A,||0.75||Oil Stillingia||D,||0.80|
|(from Helonias dioica)||(from Stillingia sylvatica)|
|Iridin (Oleo-Resin)||A,||0.75||Stillingia Liniment||E,||0.25|
|(from Iris versicolor)|
Notes on Oils and Oleo-resins.
A. These are natural mixtures of fixed oils and resins in which are dissolved characteristic principles of the drugs from which they are obtained. The paragraph introducing them, together with other preceding references, is self-explanatory.
B. Oil of Capsicum. (Am. Disp.)—This is a very powerful preparation and must be very carefully employed. It is an active stimulant and may be added to liniments, poultices, etc., whenever excessive stimulation or rubefaction is desired. It is too active for use as an internal remedy, except in very small doses, not in excess of one drop, and then should be largely diluted with syrup. A similar preparation is official in the United States Pharmacopoeia under the name Oleoresin Capsicum.
C. Oil of Lobelia.—"One drop of the oil triturated with one scruple of sugar, and divided into from six to twelve doses, will be found highly useful as an expectorant, nauseant, sedative, and diaphoretic, when given every one or two hours, as may be required. As a local application, much benefit may be derived from it where a particular nerve is to be quieted or a muscle to be relaxed. An excellent liniment may be made of a mixture of half an ounce each of oils of amber and sassafras, a drachm of oil of lobelia, and half a drachm of oil of capsicum."—Am. Disp.
D. Oil of Stillingia.—This is an Eclectic remedy, and highly valued. The oil is too active for internal use unless well mixed with mucilaginous substances. In small quantities of not over a drop on a lump of sugar it works very effectively in cases of hoarseness and other throat troubles. This oil is the principal ingredient in the well-known Eclectic preparation called Compound Stillingia Liniment.
E. Stillingia Liniment.—(Compound Stillingia Liniment.) The name of this preparation is misleading, because the word liniment leads one to think only of a preparation for outward application. The larger amount of Stillingia Liniment is used internally, in which direction we consider it invaluable. Its uses are aptly expressed by Dr. Scudder, as follows:
This old remedy is most efficient for the relief of long-standing and obstinate coughs. For this purpose, we direct from 1 to 2 drops upon a lump of sugar, two or three times daily; and if there is an affection of the larynx, that it be freely applied to the throat; in the first stages of croup, give to a child two years old 1/2 to 1 drop upon a lump of sugar every hour or two, as necessary. It is also one of the best applications to the throat in croup. SHAKE WELL BEFORE USING.—Scudder's Materia Medica and Therapeutics.
The Lloyd Libary Bulletin # 12: The Eclectic Alkaloids, 1910, was written by J. U. & C. G. Lloyd.